Dualism and Materialism
Dualism Materialism RationalismEmpiricismKelly PerezInstructor1the Mind-Body Problem
A Dualist believes that the mind and body work together; you cant have one without the other. 17th century philosopher Rene Descartes explains Dualism as the mind and body working together but two very different things. The body is a like a machine with moving parts made out of material but incapable of thought of feeling while the mind is a immeasurable, and capable of thought and feeling. Thus he claimed we are a combination of the body and the soul. The philosophical question stemming from Dualism asks how can two separate things work together in harmony or as we call it, the Mind-Body Problem.
2DualismDualism is the belief that the mind and body work together; you cant have one without the other.
3MaterialismMaterialism is the belief the mind and body are a collection of atoms setup in a complicated manner that adheres to the law of physics.
4Materialist would sayWe know nothing of pure knowledge Dependent on the quick interpretation of sense data, True knowledge takes times and patience after long periods of time investigating the world around us;In the end, all sensations are just atoms discharging against one another.
Senses only provide us with sensory data and nothing else; When we analyzing information from the world around us, we add information we think should be there. Rarely do you see a food that appears weird to the eye and able to tell the taste buds its wonderful to taste. This opinion of what you think will be weird tasting is not coming form the world around you, its coming from the inner you. The interpretation of the senses is our subjective perception on the matter and has nothing to do with what is really happening in the world around us. 5DualismA Dualist believes that the mind and body work together
Thus, we hear the tree fall and we hear the ocean swell the world is just atoms bouncing off each other out of necessity. It is we who had the effects of the senses, i.e. we are adding sound and taste. 6The theory statesThe mind and the body are different kinds of thingsThe body is physical - the mind is nonphysicalPhysical facts are facts about the body, while mental facts are facts about the mind 7Personal Identity Where is the mind located?Is the mind tied to one being?If the mind can be transplanted are possible?Video QuestionsVideo - Dr. White; GRAPHIC2:30-3:300: Isolated Brain Consciousness, thoughts?4:30-7:08: Successful Head Transplant of Monkey9:44-10:44: If not us, than who? Humans next?
Rationalism / Empiricism Epistemology is the study of knowledge and the truth claims asserted - or justified beliefs. How you come to your knowledge is split among philosophers; you're either a Rationalist or an Empiricist.
10Reason (Rationalism)Truths are nothing more than ideas that have nothing to do with the five senses. We use our logical reasoning skills to determine facts
Senses?11Experience (Empiricism)Truths are nothing more than ideas that have everything to do with the five senses. We use our intuition and gut to determine facts
Clarify 12No Such Thing as Blind FaithIn our lives we accept knowledge to be true because we give it authority to be trueHow we do know is the focus of this lectureReason?
13So Whats What? Where does human knowledge ultimately come from? Radical Empiricismall knowledge comes from the senses Radical Rationalismall knowledge comes from logic and innate ideas
Quotes14Do we need intervention?How shall we decide what is right?LogicEvidenceHow do we weigh our own pre-dispositions?How far do we extend trust?In looking at views alien to our own how far do we lift our distrust?
15Rationalist PhilosophersRationalists share the view that there is innate knowledge Plato was a Rationalist because he believed the Forms was present at birth; dormant until used. Descartes thinks the idea of God and knowledge of his own existence is present before birth Chomsky believed the ability to understand language was present in womb
Rationalism as defined as the belief that at least some knowledge about reality can be acquired through reason, independently of sense experience. Thats not to say your experiences do not have any role in acquiring knowledge but a Rationalist would argue the balance leans more towards reason than experience.
16Empiricist PhilosophersThere is no such thing as innate knowledge; you learn all as you experience itLocke - claimed that sense experience is the ultimate starting point for all our knowledge.BerkeleyHumeEmpiricism as defined as the belief that at least some knowledge about reality can be acquired through the senses, independently of reason. In this manner, your senses acquire information which command you reason to react a certain way. When youre feeling blue, your attitude changes to a depressed state. No matter how hard you try to change your mood, your emotions control the show.
17IF and Maybe
Dualism Materialism RationalismEmpiricismKelly PerezInstructor19