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  • Generations of

    Computer

    © atish shrestha

  • Table of Contents

    Generations of Computer

    o First Generation

    o Second Generation

    o Third Generation

    o Fourth Generation

    o Fifth Generation

    © atish shrestha

  • Generation in computer terminology is a change in

    technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the

    generation term was used to distinguish between

    varying hardware technologies. Nowadays, generation

    includes both hardware and software, which together

    make up an entire computer system.

    © atish shrestha

  • Generations of Computer

    The development of electronic computers can be divided into

    generations depending upon the technologies used. Different

    generations of computer are:

    o First Generation (Vacuum Tubes) 1946-1958

    o Second Generation (Transistor) 1959-1964

    o Third Generation (Integrated Circuits) 1965-1971

    o Fourth Generation (Microprocessor) 1971-Present

    o Fifth Generation (Artificial Intelligence) Present and Beyond

    © atish shrestha

  • First Generation Computers (1946-1958)

    The first generation were used during 1946-1958.

    The computers of first generation used vacuum tubes.

    The vacuum tube was developed by Lee De Forest.

    First generation computers were very expensive to operate and in

    addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of

    heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

    Examples of first generation computers are ENIAC and

    UNIVAC-I etc.

    © atish shrestha

  • Advantages

    o Vacuum tubes were the only Electronic component available during those days.

    o Vacuum tube technology made possible to make electronic digital computers.

    o These computers could calculate data in millisecond.

    Disadvantages

    o The computers were very large in size. o Consume a large amount of energy. o They heated very soon due to

    thousands of vacuum tubes. o They were not very reliable. o Air conditioning was required. o Constant maintenance was required. o Non-portable. o Costly commercial production. o Limited commercial use. o Very slow speed. o Limited programming capabilities. o Used machine language only. o Used magnetic drums which provide

    very less data storage. o Used punch cards for input. o Not versatile and very faulty.

    First Generation Computers (1946-1958)

    © atish shrestha

  • Second Generation Computers(1959-1964)

    Second generation computers used transistors.

    The scientists at Bell laboratories developed transistor in 1947.

    These scientists include John Barden, William Brattain and William

    Shockley.

    Transistors were used because they were cheaper, consumed less

    power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first

    generation machines made of vacuum tubes.

    Examples of second generation

    computers are IBM 7094 series,

    IBM 1400 series and CDC 164

    etc.

    © atish shrestha

  • Advantages

    o Smaller in size

    o More reliable

    o Used less energy and were not heated.

    o Wider commercial use

    o Better portability.

    o Better speed and could calculate data in

    microseconds

    o Used faster peripherals like tape drives,

    magnetic disks, printer etc.

    o Used Assembly language instead of

    Machine language.

    o Accuracy improved.

    Disadvantages

    o Cooling system was required

    o Constant maintenance was

    required

    o Commercial production was

    difficult

    o Only used for specific purposes

    o Costly and not versatile

    o Punch cards were used for input.

    Second Generation Computers(1959-1964)

    © atish shrestha

  • Third Generation Computers(1965-1971)

    The computers of third generation used integrated circuits (IC's).

    Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrated circuit in 1958.

    The first IC was invented and used in 1961.

    This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and

    efficient.

    The examples of third generation computers are IBM 370, IBM

    System/360, UNIVAC 1108

    and UNIVAC AC 9000 etc.

    © atish shrestha

  • Advantages

    o Smaller in size

    o More reliable.

    o Used less energy

    o Produced less heat

    o Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.

    o Used fan for heat discharge to prevent damage.

    o Maintenance cost was low

    o Totally general purpose

    o Could be used for high-level languages.

    o Good storage

    o Versatile to an extent

    o Less expensive

    o Better accuracy

    o Commercial production increased.

    o Used mouse and keyboard for input.

    Disadvantages

    o Air conditioning was required.

    o Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips.

    Third Generation Computers(1965-1971)

    © atish shrestha

  • Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present)

    The fourth generation computers started with the invention of

    Microprocessor.

    The Microprocessor contains thousands of ICs.

    Ted Hoff produced the first microprocessor in 1971 for Intel.

    It was known as Intel 4004.

    Fourth generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable,

    and affordable.

    The examples of fourth generation

    computers are Apple Macintosh &

    IBM PC.

    © atish shrestha

  • Advantages

    o More powerful and reliable

    o Small in size

    o Fast processing power with less power consumption

    o Fan for heat discharging and thus to keep cold.

    o No air conditioning required.

    o Totally general purpose

    o Commercial production

    o Less need of repair.

    o Cheapest among all generations

    o All types of High level languages can be used in this type of computers

    Disadvantages o The latest technology is

    required for manufacturing of Microprocessors

    Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present)

    © atish shrestha

  • Fifth Generation Computers

    (Present & Beyond)

    Scientists are working hard on the 5th generation computers . It is based on the technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

    AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets

    means and method of making computers think like human

    beings.

    Computers can understand spoken words & imitate human

    reasoning.

    All the high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .NET etc are

    used in this generation.

    © atish shrestha

  • THANK YOU

    © atish shrestha


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