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Page 1: Ethernet and TCPIP Basics ( Tellabs)

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Ethernet and TCP/IP Basics

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Objectives

> This chapter introduces basic concepts related to LAN

interconnection

> OSI Reference Model and Data Encapsulation

> Ethernet Basics

> T!"I! Basics> Brid#in#$ S%itchin# and Routin#

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OSI Reference Model

and Data Encapsulation

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OSI Reference Model

Net%or& services for applications Application

Data representation and transfer s'nta(Presentation

o))unication channel )ana#e)entSession

Net%or&*%ide end*to*end connectionTransport

Addressin# and routin#Network

Access to transport )ediaData Link

 Bit trans)ission in the ph'sical )ediu)Physical

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o))unication Bet%een +osts

 Application  Application

Presentation Presentation

Session Session

Transport Transport

Network Network

Data Link Data Link

Physical Physical

Se#)ents

!ac&ets

,ra)es

Bits

+ost A +ost B

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Tellabs -.// !roducts in OSI Model

Application

!resentation

Session

Transport

Net%or&

Data Lin&

!h'sical

Data Representation and

Transfer Syntax

Communication Channel

ana!ement

"nd#to#end Data $low

and "rror Control

Network Ser%ices for

 Applications

&it Transmission in the

Physical edium

 Access to Transport

edia 'framin!(

Routin! and Addressin!

"#mail News!roups )e* Applications

Tellabs -/// net%or& )ana#er 

P"+,-P+,+.$

Port num*ers /0 12 /23/4 454345/

.P R.P 6SP$ .S#.S .CP D7CPRouter L0 SwitchTellabs -../ T(*R$ STE*./M

TCP 8DP Net&"8. SP9 .S6 TP

"thernet $R AT PPP 7DLC&rid!e L/ Switch

ES0$ Tellabs -../ T(*R$ STE*./M

:;/< 42&ase#T xDSL 9;/4 7SS. +;=20

Repeater37u* odem

Tellabs -.// Data Multiple(ers$ NT0s

OSI La'er Na)e Description Interfaces$ protocols andnet%or& ele)ent e(a)ples

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Data Encapsulation E(a)ple

"#mail messa!e Data Data

DataSe#)ent

header Se!ment

DataSe#)ent

header 

!ac&et

header 

Packet

Data!ac&et

header ,ra)e

header 

Se#)ent

header ,ra)e

trailer 

edium dependent frame

244444244424242444244224224224224 &its

6S.

4

/

0

<

=

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I!*Ethernet Encapsulation

> T'pical encapsulation t'pe inside Ethernet LANs

Bits

244444244424242444244224224224224

6S.

4

/

0

<Se#)entData

T!

+eader 

I!+eader 

!ac&etT!+eader 

Data

Ethernet

+eader 

I!

+eader 

,ra)eData

T!

+eader 

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Bits244444244424242444244224224224224

6S.

4

/

0

<Se#)entDataT!

+eader 

I!

+eader !ac&etData

T!

+eader 

,ra)eI!

+eader 

Ethernet

+eader Data

T!

+eader 

,R

+eader 

,ra)eI!

+eader 

Ethernet

+eader Data

T!

+eader 

Ethernet Over ,ra)e Rela'Encapsulation

> T'pical encapsulation t'pe in re)ote brid#es

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Ethernet Over !!! Encapsulation

Bits244444244424242444244224224224224

6S.

4

/

0

<Se#)entData

T!

+eader 

I!

+eader !ac&etData

T!

+eader 

,ra)eI!

+eader 

Ethernet

+eader Data

T!

+eader 

!!!

+eader 

,ra)eI!

+eader 

Ethernet

+eader Data

T!

+eader 

> T'pical encapsulation t'pe in re)ote brid#es

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I! Over ,ra)e Rela' Encapsulation

Bits

244444244424242444244224224224224

6S.

4

/

0

<Se#)entDataT!

+eader 

I!

+eader !ac&etData

T!

+eader 

,ra)eI!

+eader 

,R

+eader Data

T!

+eader 

> T'pical encapsulation t'pe in I! access routers

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Ethernet Basics

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OSI

 Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

!h'sical

Data Link

!h'sical La'er 

opper 

Optical

fiber 

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Ethernet Net%or& Speeds

> Ethernet versions available currentl'

> ./ Mbit"s$ .// Mbit"s$ . 1bit"s and ./ 1bit"s

> Both t%isted pair copper cables and fiber can be used in

cablin#

> ./Base*T"2$ .//Base*T"2$ .///Base*T"2

> Onl' fiber cablin#

> ./1Base*R"3 4R5LAN$ 353AN6

> ./".// Mbit"s )ostl' used in co)puter access lin&s

> ."./ 1bit"s are used> in server connections

> bet%een s%itches and Routers

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OSI

 Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Physical Physical

Ethernet II

-/7 series

SMA"D

!!!

Data Lin&

Data Lin& La'er 

LLCAC

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+ard%are Addressin#

>The ph'sical address of one net%or& interface

> Sa)e as MA or Ethernet address

> ,or e(a)ple //*</*>?*,-*B*.<

> 0sed in unicast )essa#es

>The net%or& broadcast address

> ,,*,,*,,*,,*,,*,,

> 0sed in broadcast )essa#es

>A )ulticast address

> for e(a)ple /9*//*//*7/*//*// 4I! Multicast Address6

> 0sed in )ulticast )essa#es

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T!"I! Basics

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Transport and Net%or& !rotocols

OSI

 Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Physical Physical

Data Link LLCAC

I! I!2

S!2T!NetBE0I

DL

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OSI

 Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Net%or& .nternet Protocol

Network Access

Physical Physical

Internet !rotocolInternet !rotocol 4I!64I!6

Routin# !rotocols

4OS!,6Data Link

T!"I! !rotocol Suite *Internet !rotocol

T!"I!

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Internet !rotocol * I!

> 0sed in routin# and addressin#

> onnectionless unreliable best*effort deliver' of data

> an use different t'pes of net%or&s

> for e(a)ple Ethernet$ ATM$ ,ra)e Rela'> ,ra#)entation and reasse)bl' 

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I! !rotocol ,or)at

DATA

8 8 8

S68RC" .P ADDR"SS

2 1 45 /< 04< 4

:"RS T6TAL L"N+T7S"R:.C" T?P"7L"N

.D"NT.$.CAT.6N $RA+"NT 6$$S"T$LA+S

7"AD"R C7"C@S8PR6T6C6LT." T6 L.:"

D"ST.NAT.6N .P ADDR"SS

.P 6PT.6NS '.$ AN?( PADD.N+

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I! ,ra#)entation E(a)ple

> ,ra#)entation for pac&ets bi##er than ?=/ b'tes is

needed bet%een R. and R7

7ost A 7ost &

N"T 4

T8 4B22

&ytes

N"T 0

T8 4B22

&ytes

N"T /

T8 =B2

&ytes

R4 R/

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Internet !rotocol Addressin#

> 97*bit addresses

> Net%or& part and host part

> The lo%est host nu)ber 5 net%or& address

> The hi#hest host nu)ber 5 broadcast address

4<;4;//;/5

N"T)6R@ PART 76ST PART

  44222242 ; 22242244 ; 22242442 ; 22244242

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4 4 4 4 2 reser%ed for future useClass "

I! Address lasses

> !rivate address ran#es> ./8/8/8/ * ./87==87==87==

> .?78.<8/8/ * .?789.87==87==

> .>78.<-8/8/ * .>78.<-87==87==

hostidnetid2

2 1 45 /< 044 / 0 <

Class A

netid hostid4 2Class &

4 4 2 netid hostidClass C

4 4 4 2 multicast addressClass D

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lass Address andDefault Net%or& Mas&

I! Address 4dec6 4< 4 // /5

I! Address 4bin6 44222242 22242244 22242442 22244242

Net%or& Mas& 4bin6 44444444 44444444 44444444 22222222

Net%or& Mas& 4dec6 /BB /BB /BB 2

lass address

Abbreviated for)at of the address and )as&

> .>;8.>87787< " 7; 4nu)ber of @.s in the )as&6

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Subnettin# %ith lass Address

Subnet Net%or& Address +ost Ran#e Broadcast Address822 4><;4>;//;2 4><;4>;//;4# 5/ 4><;4>;//;50

24 4><;4>;//;5< 4><;4>;//;5B # 4/5 4><;4>;//;4/=

42 4><;4>;//;4/1 4><;4>;//;4/> # 4>2 4><;4>;//;4>4

44 4><;4>;//;4>/ 4><;4>;//;4>0 # /B< 4><;4>;//;/BB

Su*network Address Ran!es

I! Address 4dec6 4< 4 // /5

I! Address 4bin6 44222242 22242244 22242442 22 244242

Net%or& Mas& 4bin6 44444444 44444444 44444444 44 222222

Net%or& Mas& 4dec6 /BB /BB /BB

Class C address with Su*nettin!

4/

E l f

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E(a)ple ofSubnetted lass Net%or&

4<;4;//;.*<7

/BB;/BB;/BB;4/4<;4;//;<=*.7<

/BB;/BB;/BB;4/

4<;4;//;.7>*.>/

/BB;/BB;/BB;4/

4<;4;//;.>9*7=;

/BB;/BB;/BB;4/

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Sies of Subnet%or&s

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Subnettin# E(ercise

> lass A private net%or&C ./8/8/8/ " 7;

> Subnetted

> ,ind the net%or& address and the broadcast address for

the follo%in# hosts

.P Address Network ask

42;2;2;51 /BB;/BB;/BB;/<1

42;2;2;414 /BB;/BB;/BB;/B/42;2;2;4/ /BB;/BB;/BB;4/

42;2;2;/2/ /BB;/BB;/BB;//<

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Ans%ers to Subnettin# E(ercise

.P Address Network Address &roadcast Address

42;2;2;51 42;2;2;5< 42;2;2;=4

42;2;2;414 42;2;2;412 42;2;2;41042;2;2;4/> 42;2;2;4/1 42;2;2;4>4

42;2;2;/2/ 42;2;2;4>/ 42;2;2;//0

T!"I! ! t l S it

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OSI T!"I!

 Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network Internet !rotocol

Network access

Physical Physical

Internet ontrol

Messa#e !rotocol

4IM!6

Address Resolution!rotocol 4AR!6

T!"I! !rotocol Suite IM! and AR!

Data Link

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Address Resolution !rotocol * AR!

> AR! )aps the &no%n I! address to a MA address8

> I! to MA address )appin# is &ept in the d'na)ic

AR! table8

. need the AC

address of

4=/;45;0;/ 4=/;45;0;4 4=/;45;0;/

AR! Reuest

)essa#e tr'in# to

resolve MA

address for I!C

.?78.<8987

Someone is

askin! for my

AC address

AR! Response

)essa#e tellin#

MA address

for I!C

.?78.<8987

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TAR+"T .P 'octets 2#0(

AR! Messa#e ,or)at

> Operation field specifies

> AR! Reuest 4.6

> AR! Response 476

7ARD)AR" T?P" PR6T6C6L T?P"

7L"N PL"N 6P"RAT.6N

S"ND"R 7A 'octets 2#0(

S"ND"R 7A 'octets <#B( S"ND"R .P 'octets 2#4(S"ND"R .P 'octets /#0( TAR+"T 7A 'octets 2#4(

TAR+"T 7A 'octets /#B(

2 1 45 /< 04

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Internet ontrol Messa#e !rotocol

> IM! is used to send error$ control and test )essa#es

carried in I! pac&ets

> IM! )essa#e e(a)plesC

> Destination unreachable> Echo

> Echo repl'

> Ti)e e(ceeded for data#ra)

> !in# co))and uses echo and echo repl' and

tests the T!"I! connection up to the net%or& la'er 

> Traceroute co))and utilies IM! echo

T!"I! ! t l S it

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T!"I! !rotocol Suite *Transport La'er 

OSI T!"I!

 Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network .nternet Protocol

Network access

Physical Physical

Trans)ission ontrol

!rotocol 4T!6

0ser Data#ra) !rotocol

40D!6

Transport

Data Link

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Transport"Internet La'er Interface

> !ac&ets carried b' the I! protocol indicate the clientla'er protocol that uses the pa'load data

TCP 8DP

5 4=

.P

Transport

Layer 

.nternet

Layer 

!rotocol ID field

in the I! header 

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Trans)ission ontrol !rotocol * T!

> T! is a reliable connection oriented protocol

> T! is responsible for error control

> T! for)s a virtual circuit bet%een the

co))unicatin# applications

> T! for%ards data to%ards application la'er based

on the port nu)ber 

I! addressC ./8./8./8.

T! source portC ./7;

T! destination portC =///

I! addressC ./8./8./87=/

T! source portC =///

T! destination portC ./7;

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T! !rotocol ,or)at

DATA

8 8 8

 AC@N6)L"D+""NT N8&"R

2 42 45 /< 04<

6PT.6NS '.$ AN?( PADD.N+

D"ST.NAT.6N P6RTS68RC" P6RT

S"8"NC" N8&"R

).ND6)C6D" &.TS7L"N R"S"R:"D

8R+"NT P6.NT"RC7"C@S8

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T! ,unctional E(a)ple

Recei%e AC@ 4

Recei%e AC@ /

Recei%e AC@ 0

Recei%e Packet 4

Send Packet 4

Send Packet /

Send Packet 0'After that sender 

must wait for the

 AC@4 *efore

sendin! more packets(

"%ents at Sender Site Network essa!es "%ents at Recei%er Site

Send AC@ 4

Recei%e Packet /

Send AC@ /

Recei%e Packet 0Send AC@ 0

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0ser Data#ra) !rotocol * 0D!

> 0D! is a connectionless and unac&no%led#ed

protocol li&e I!

> Best*effort deliver'

> Multiple(in#> Li#hter to transfer than T!

> 0sed b' T,T! and SNM! application protocols

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0D! !rotocol ,or)at

DATA

8 8 8

2 45 04

8DP D"ST.NAT.6N P6RT8DP S68RC" P6RT

8DP "SSA+" L"N+T7 8DP C7"C@S8

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T!"I! !rotocol Suite

OSI T!"I!

 Application

Presentation

Session

TransportTransport

Network .nternet

Data Link Network access

Physical Physical

Telnet

,ile Transfer

!rotocol 4,T!6

Trivial ,ile Transfer

!rotocol 4T,T!6

Si)ple Net%or&

Mana#e)ent

!rotocol 4SNM!6

 Application

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Application"Transport La'er Interface

> T! and 0D! use port nu)ber to pass the data to the

application la'er protocols

> 3ell*&no%n port nu)ber used for application la'er soft%are

,T! Telnet +TT! DNS T,T! SNM!

T! 0D!

Application

La'er 

Transport

La'er 

/4 /0 12 B0 5 454

E(a)ples of

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Protocol Port Port Num*er  

$TP#data /2

$TP /4

SS7 //

Telnet /0

STP /B

7ost Name ').NS( </

DNS B0

+opher =2

7TTP 12

P6P0 442S8N RPC 444

NNTP 44>

Net&T Name Ser%; 40=

Net&T Session Ser%; 40>

.AP 4<0

LDAP 01>

7TTP o%er TLS3SSL <<0

LDAP o%er TLS3SSL 505

Telnet o%er TLS3SSL >>/

.AP o%er TLS3SSL >>0

.RC o%er TLS3SSL >><

P6P0 o%er TLS3SSL >>BLotus Notes RPC 40B/

PPTP ne!otiation 4=/0

N$S /2<>

S.P B252

.RC 555=

RealAudio3:ideo =2=2

TCP

Protocol Port Port Num*er  

DNS B0

&ootp Ser%er 5=

&ootp Client 51T$TP 5

S8N RPC 444

Net&T Name Ser%; 40=

Net&T D!m; Ser%; 401

SNP 454

SNP Trap 45/

.SA@P '.@"( B22

L/TP 4=24

N$S /2<

.CP 7TTP Def; 04/1

.CP Def; Port 0402

RTP B22<

RTPC B22B

S.P B252

RealAudio Data

Destination3source port 4 is 5=2,

Destination3Source port / is =4=2

8DP

E(a)ples ofApplications and !ort Nu)bers

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E(a)ple ApplicationsC Telnet

Telnet connection to port /0

Terminal  Applicationsoftware

> 0ser access to a re)ote host

> 0sin# application soft%are on the re)ote host as ifdirectl' connected

> 0ses T!

T!

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E(a)ple ApplicationsC ,T!

> ,ile Transfer !rotocol * ,T!

> ,ile transfer bet%een re)ote co)puters

> 0ser securit'C user na)e and pass%ord

> lient*server architecture

> ontrol connection and data transfer connection inseparate ports

> 0ses T!

,T! Server ,T! lient

$TP data connection to port /2

$TP control connection to port /4

T!

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E(a)ple ApplicationsC T,T!

> Trivial ,ile Transfer !rotocol * T,T!

> ,ile transfer bet%een re)ote co)puters %ithout user"pass%ordverification

> lient*server architecture> Onl' data transfer connection needed

> 0ses 0D!

T,T! Server T,T! lient

T$TP connection to port 5

0D!

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ApplicationsC +TT!

> +'perte(t Transfer !rotocol * +TT!

> T'picall' used %ith the 333C co))unication bet%een the%eb bro%ser and the %eb server 

> !rotocol for transferrin# various t'pes of infor)ationC te(t$h'perte(t$ audio$ i)a#es$ video

> Transaction*oriented client"server protocol

> 0ses T!

333 Server 333 Bro%ser 

7TTP connection to port 12

T!

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E(a)ple ApplicationsC SNM!

> Si)ple Net%or& Mana#e)ent !rotocol SNM!

> Monitorin# of the net%or& ele)ents

> ,aults 4traps6

> !erfor)ance statistics

> Mana#e)ent Infor)ation Base 4MIB6 stores the description

of each )onitored object associated %ith a net%or&

ele)ent

> 0ses 0D!

SNM! NMS

SNM! a#ents

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Brid#in# and Routin#oncepts

LAN Interconnect o)ponentsC

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S%itch

Repeater " +ub

)AN

x x x x x x

S%itch

Brid#e or Router 

Corporate

LAN

LAN Interconnect o)ponentsCRepeater$ S%itch$ Brid#e and Router 

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x x x x x x

LAN I o)ponentsC Repeater"+ub

> The )ain purpose of a repeater is to e(tend the ph'sical len#th of aLAN

> Repeater re#enerates the si#nal but does not understand the contentof the bit strea)

> Traditional LAN built %ith repeaters is called flat LAN

> ,lat LAN provides e(tra load to net%or& because all co)puters

hear each othersF )essa#e transfer 4broadcast all over the LAN6

+ub

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LAN I o)ponentsC Brid#e

> E(tends the ph'sical len#th of LAN e8#8 bet%een t%obuildin#s

> ,ilters traffic bet%een t%o LAN se#)ents based on MAaddresses

> ,unctions in OSI la'er 7

> Transparent to the users

"nd station "nd station

0 # Network layer 0 # Network layer

/ # LLC / # LLC

AC AC

4 # Physical layer4 # Physical layer

Brid#e

LAN Se!ment LAN Se!ment

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> Multiport brid#e$ also called Ethernet s%itch> Main purpose is to filter traffic based on MA

addresses and thus save band%idth on a LAN

> L7 s%itches have replaced traditional hubs in the

LAN environ)ent

"nd station "nd station

0 # Network layer 0 # Network layer

/ # LLC / # LLC

AC AC

4 # Physical layer4 # Physical layer

L7 S%itch

LAN Se!ment LAN Se!ment

LAN I o)ponentsC L7 S%itch

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Brid#e T'pesC Local Brid#e

> R chec&

> Destination chec&

> Discard"for%ard

LAN A

LAN &MA I!

MA I!

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Brid#e T'pesC Re)ote Brid#e

LAN A LAN &Leased line

connection

MA I! MA I!

MA I!

> R chec&

> Destination chec&

> Discard"for%ard

> Encapsulate Ethernet to

3AN protocol

> hec&"re)ove 3AN

encapsulation

> R chec&

> Destination chec&

> Discard"for%ard

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LAN I o)ponentsC Router 

> S%itches traffic bet%een its ports based on OSI la'er 9 addresses> !rovides better filterin# possibilities co)pared to la'er 7 co)ponents

> Operatin# routers reuires )ore &no%led#e co)pared to brid#es or L7s%itches

"nd station "nd station

< # Transport layer < # Transport layer

0 # Network layer 0 # Network layer

/ # LLC / # LLC

AC AC4 # Physical layer

4 # Physical layer

Router

LAN Se!ment LAN Se!ment

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Su))ar'

Ans%er the uestions in 'our )aterialG