Mar 19, 2016
Youth unemployment in Europe
Youngsters face to the crisis
What is unemployment?
According to the International Labour
Unemployed person is defined as someone aged between 15 and 74, without work during the reference week and ready to start working in the next two weeks.
Unemployment depends on the labour market and the general business cycle.
General view in 2012
According to Eurostat, in May 2012, 24.868 million men and women in the European Union, were unemployed. Compared with April 2012, this number increased by 151 000.
And, if we compare with May 2011, unemployment increased by 1 952 000.
The last unemployment rates:
The EU-27 unemployment rate was 10.3 % in May 2012, compared with 10.2 % in April; it was 9.5 % in May 2011.
Unemployment rates (%) in 2012
How to explain those figures? Return on the crisis
This global financial crisis started in 2007, with the subprime mortgage crisis in United States.
Then this crisis spread all over the world in a global economic shock.
Since 2008, we are in a global recession period.
The crisis in Europe
Above all, this crisis led to the European bank failures and contributed to the European sovereign-debt crisis. In 2011, 5 of the most in debt countries were in Europe (excluding micro-states)
Unemployment rates by duration 2011(%) Eurostat
Unemployment less than 12 months
As a consequence of this crisis, the unemployment rate increased dramatically in some European countries.
Overview in 5 countries
An extreme example: Greece
In 2010, the unemployment rate in Greece was already high, as the country went into recession in 2008. Since then, each year seems to be worst than the last one.
Greek government and people face to several issues: the global financial crisis, the global recession, but also their own recession and governement debt crisis.
What about young people?
Youth unemployment concerns young people between 15 and 24.
Youngsters are generally more affected by unemployment than the other groups of population.
And in time of crisis, they are the first to be laid off. As we can observe since some years.
Youth unemployment rates (in%) Evolution for the last years
France Italy Greece Poland Romania
Source: Eurostat Employment and labour markets: Key tables from OECD - ISSN 2075-2342 - OECD 2012 Youth unemployment rate % of youth labour force (15-24)
What are the reasons of this youth unemployment?
Last arrived, first left: because of this policy, the young people are the first ones to suffer from the job crisis
Government policy of austerity: the public sector is not opened anymore for new workers
Labor market selection rules: - Underqualification unqualified youngsters and qualified
ones are competing for the same jobs
- Overqualificationoverqualification was considered as a good thing during years but now some employers prefer hired people with less qualification to pay them less
Significant impacts Precarity and its consequences: - Loss of income for the younsters - Health repercussion: lack of access to health care, depression, loss of
self-confidence, confinement, addictive behavior - Possibility of moving to black market and criminality
Consummation: - Youngsters are not involved in the relancelost output and lost
potential for economy
Lack of work experience: young people dont gain work experience and may find it more difficult to get work in the future
Impact in government policies: - Higher government spending - Lower tax revenues - Challenge: find solutions
Brain drain Conflicting relation with their government
The challenge of youth unemployment
Governement policies: International, European and
national surveys are presently being carried out on this topic
European programmes for young people, as Leonardo da Vinci or Erasmus placements, allow them to gain experience in a formal way
Youth in Action or Europe for Citizen programmes are tools to get work experience in an informal way but also to improve particular skills as leadership, active citizenship...
Answers from the youngsters By taking part in the previous
programmes, youngsters are involoved in their own country but also in a European or international level.
During the last years, youth mouvements were created. These mouvements, using all the existing tools, are a way for youngsters to fight for their rights.
For a lot of these youngsters, the solution to this crisis seems to be the modification of our economical system.
Powerpoint created by the international participants during the youth exchange Turning social exclusion in inclusive growth that took place in Sala Bolognese June 2012