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    POPES,PEASANTS,MONARCHSANDMERCHANTSBAROQUEART

    TEXTPAGES688747

    BAROQUEARTINTHE17THCENTURY1.WithwhatreligiousmovementismuchoftheBaroqueartinCatholiccountriesassociated?

    TheCounterReformation.

    Listthreeadjectivesorphrasesthatdescribeitsstyle:

    a. Dramatictheatricality.

    b. Grandiosescale.

    c. Elaborateornateness.

    2.WhatcitywasthefocusofartisticpatronageastheCatholicchurchtriedtoreestablishitsprimacy?

    Rome.

    3.ListthreewaysinwhichMadernsEarlyBaroquechurchofSantaSusanna(FIG.241)resemblesthechurchofIlGesu(FIG.2249):

    a. Eachbuildinghasscrollbuttressesconnectingtheupperandlowerlevelsofthefaade.

    b. Eachbuildinghastwopediments,oneforeachstory.

    c. Sculpturesinnichesframethecentraldoorwayineachbuilding.

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  • Listthreewaysinwhichitdiffers:

    a. Thefaadehasagreaterverticality,concentratinganddramatizingthemajorfeaturesofitsmodel.

    b. Thefaadestallcentralsectionprojectsforwardfromthehorizontallowerstory.

    c. Strongshadowscastbythevigorouslyprojectingcolumnsandpilastersmountdramaticallytowardtheemphaticallystressedcentralaxis.

    4.NamefourarchitectswhoworkedonSt.Peter'sandnotetheprimarycontributionofeach.

    a. DonatodAngeloBramante:Theoriginalplanandtheconceptofahemisphericaldome.

    b. Michelangelo:Thereducedplanandtheogivaldomewithdrum.

    c. CarloMaderno:thefaade.

    d. GianlorenzoBernini:thecolonnadedpiazza.

    5.Whatisabaldacchino?

    Canopylikestructureoncolumns,frequentlybuiltoveranaltar.

    6.ListfourmajorcharacteristicsofBernini'ssculpturethataretypicalofBaroqueartingeneral.

    a. Expansiveandtheatrical.

    b. Theelementoftimeusuallyplaysanimportantrole.

    c. Dynamicqualityconveyingaburstingforthofenergy.

    d. Refusaltolimititselftofirmlydefinedspatialsettings.

    7.InwhatwaydidBerninidepictthevisionofSt.Theresa(FIG249)?

    76 76

  • Aslight(shiningfrombehindahiddenwindowofyellowglass)pouringdownonbronzerayssuggestingtheradianceofHeaven.

    8.Whodevelopedthesculpturalarchitecturalstyletoitsextreme?FrancescoBorromoni.

    Nametwobuildingsdesignedbyhim.

    a. SanCarloalleQuattroFontane. b.ChapelofSaintIvo.

    BotharelocatedinthecityofRome.

    9.WhilethecirclehadbeentheidealgeometricfiguretoRenaissancearchitects,Baroqueplannerspreferredtheoval.

    .Why?Theovalisamoredynamicformofthecircle,creatinganinteriorthatappearstoflowfromentrancetoaltar,unimpededbythesegmentationcharacteristicofRenaissancebuildings.

    10.Whatisthepurposeofthelateral,threepartdivisionofBaroquepalacefacades?Atripartiteorganizationallowsartiststointroducevarietyintotheirdesignswithoutdestroyingstructuralunity,andallowsaddedemphasistothecentralaxis.

    Uponwhathumanpsychologicaltendencydoesitseemtobebased?Itisprobablybasedontheobservationthattheaveragepersoninstinctivelycanrecognizeuptothreeobjectsasaunit.Agreaternumberrequirestheviewertocounteachobjectindividually.

    11.NametwocountrieswerethearchitecturalstylesofBorrominiandGuariniparticularlyinfluential?a. Austria b.SouthernGermany

    12.ThecommonpurposeofCaravaggio'sConversionofSt.Paul(FIG.2418)andBernini'sTheEcstasyofSt.Theresa(FIG.249)was:Toproducetherepresentationofavision,usingactuallightfromeachchapelswindows.

    13.ListthreecharacteristicsofCaravaggio'sstyle.

    77 77

  • a. Injectednaturalismintobothreligiousandclassicalsubjectswithunidealizedfigures.

    b. Sharply,dramaticallylitfiguresemergingfromadarkbackground.

    c. Invitestheviewertoparticipateinthescene.14.WhatwasCaravaggioattemptingtopresentinhisreligiouspictures?

    Tocompeltheviewersinterestandinvolvementinthescene.

    Whatpictorialdevicesdidheusetoachievehisgoal?Actiontakingplaceintheforeground;lowhorizonline;dramaticlight.

    15.Whatistenebroso?

    Shadowymannerofdarksettingsenvelopingtheiroccupants.

    Listtwocountrieswhereitwasparticularlyinflential:

    a. Spain b.TheNetherlands

    16.WhichartistsmostinfluencedthestyleofArtemesiaGentileschi?Caravaggioandherfather,OrazioGentileschi.WhowereJudithandHolophernes?CharactersfromtheApocryphalBookofJudith;HoloferneswasanAssyriangeneralwhowasseducedbyJudithandthenbeheadedbyher.

    WhattechniquesdoesArtemesiausetoportraythedramaofthetheme?Tenebrism,spurtingblood,thephysicalstrainofthewomenstrugglingwiththesword,andcontrolledhighlightsontheactionintheforeground.

    17.ListthreeassumptionsthatwerebasictotheteachingofartattheBologneseacademy.

    a. Artcanbetaught.

    b. TheteachingofartmustincludetheclassicalandRenaissancetraditions.

    c. Theteachingmustalsoincludethestudyofanatomyandlifedrawing.

    18.Whoiscreditedwithdevelopingthe"classical"or"ideal"landscape?AnnibaleCarracci.

    78 78

  • Whatwereitsroots?ThelandscapebackgroundsofVenetianRenaissancepaintings.

    19.WhatearlierworkstronglyinfluencedAnnibaleCarracci'sceilingfrescoesinthegalleryoftheFarnesePalaceinRome(FIG.2423)?MichelangelosSistineChapelceiling.

    HowdidCarraccimodifytheoriginaltoachieveheightenedillusionism?Thechiaroscuroisnotthesameforboththepaintingsandthefiguressurroundingthem.Thepaintermodeledthefiguresinsidethequadriinanevenlight.Theoutsidefiguresseemtobelitfrombeneath,asiftheywereactualthreedimensionalbeingsorstatuesilluminatedfrombelow.

    20.Whatisquadroriportatoandhowwasitused?Transferredframepainting,orsimulationofeaselpaintingforceilingdecoration.Theframedpicturesareflankedbypolychromefigureswhoturntheirheadstogazeatthescenesaroundthem,andbyAtlasfigurespaintedtoresemblemarblestatues.

    21.NametwoinfluencesblendedbyReniinhisAurorafresco(FIG.2424):a. Romanreliefs.b. Coinsdepictingemperorsintriumphalchariotsaccompaniedbyflying

    Victoriesandotherpersonifications.

    22.ListthreewaysinwhichPietrodaCortonasfrescoedceilinginthePalazzoBarberini(FIG.2425)praisedhispatron:a. DivineProvidenceholdsacrownofstarstobestoweternallifeonthe

    Barberinifamily.b. Thelaurelwreath,anothersymbolofimmortality.c. ThepapaltiaraandkeysannouncingthepersonaltriumphsofUrbanVIII.

    23.WhateffectdidGaullicreatewiththefrescohepaintedontheceilingofIlGesinRome(FIG.2426):Adramatic,transcendentspiritualenvironmentaswellasthegloryandpoweroftheCatholicChurch.

    Listthreedevicesheusedtoachievethateffect:a. Gildedarchitectureopensupinthecenteroftheceilingtoofferviewersa

    glimpseofHeaven.b. Jesusisrepresentedasabarelyvisiblemonograminablindingradiantlight

    thatfloatsheavenward.

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  • c. Gaullipaintedmanyofthesinnersonthreedimensionalstuccoextensionsthatprojectoutsidethepaintingsdome.

    24.ThepanterbesideGaulliwhoworkedfortheJesuitsinRomewasFraAndreaPozzo.HepaintedtheceilingofthechurchofSantIgnazioinRomeforthem.

    Whatdevicedidheusetomergeheavenandearth?Heillusionisticallycontinuedthechurchsownarchitectureintothevaultsothattheroofseemstobeliftedoff.

    25.NametwoSpanishrulersfromtheHapsburgdynastywhowerepatronsofthearts:a. PhillipIII b. PhillipIV

    26.WhatwasthegoalofmanySpanishBaroquereligiousartists?Tomoveviewersandtoencouragegreaterdevotionandpiety.

    Nameathemethatwasparticularlypopularamongthem:Deathandmartyrdomscenes.

    27.Ribera'sstylewasinfluencedbythe"darkmanner"of:Caravaggio.

    28.WhattypeoflightingdidZurbaranuseinhispatingofSaintSerapion(FIG.2429)?Brightlightshiningonthefigurewithadarkbackground,tocallattentiontothesaintsdeathandtoincreasethedramaticimpactoftheimage.

    29.VelazquezwascourtpaintertoKingPhillipIV.

    30.WhatdoesVelasquezsSurrenderofBreda(FIG.2431)commemorate?TheSpanishvictoryovertheDutchin1625.

    31.WhatisthesubjectofLasMeninas(FIG.2433)?TheInfantaMargaritawithhertwomaidsinwaiting,herfavoritedwarfs,andalargedog,aswellasamanandawomaninthebackground.

    Howmanylevelsofrealitycanyoufindinthepicture?Four.

    Brieflydescribethem.Canvas,mirrorimage,opticalimage,andofthetwopaintedimages.

    80 80

  • WhatpaintingtechniquedidVelazquezuseinLasMeninas?Thecompositionextendsindepthbothinfrontof(throughthemirrorandthegazesofthefigures)andbehindthepainting(throughtheopendoor).Formandshadowarerepresentedrealistically.Agreatnumberofintermediatevaluesofgraycomebetweenlightsanddarks,insteadofputtingthemsidebysideasCaravaggiodid.

    32.ThenorthernprovincesconstitutethemoderncountryofTheNetherlands,

    whilethoseinthesouthconstitutethecountryofBelgium.

    Duringtheseventeenthcentury,thissouthernregionwasknownasFlanders..33.InhisElevationoftheCross(FIG.2434)Rubenssynthesizedhisstudyofclassicalantiquity

    withtheworkoftheItalianmastersMichelangelo,TintorettoandCaravaggio,whileaddinghisowndynamism.

    Listthreefeaturesthatcontributetothedramaofthescene:

    a. Foreshortenedanatomyandtwistedfigures.

    b. Christisplacedonthecrossdiagonallywhichcutsdynamicallyacrossthepicturewhileincliningbackintoit.

    c. Strongmodelinginlightanddark.

    34.WhatmemberofthefamousFlorentineHouseofMedicicommissionedRubenstopaintacyclememorializingandglorifyinghercareerandthatofherlatehusband?MariedeMidici.

    35.NamethepaintingthatembodiesRubensattitudetowardwar:AllegoryoftheOutbreakofWar.

    Whatdidthefollowngallegoricalfiguressymbolize?

    Monsters:Plagueandfamine.

    Womanwithabrokenlute:Harmonycannotcoexistbesidethediscordofwar.

    Architectfallenbackwards:

    81 81

  • Whatisbuiltinpeaceforthebenefitandornamentofcitiesislaidinruinandrazedbytheforcesofarms.

    BookandpaperatthefeetofMars:Wartramplesonliteratureandotherrefinements.

    Sorrowingwomaninblack:UnhappyEurope.

    36.InwhattypeofpaintingsdidVanDyckspecialize?Courtportraiture.

    Howcouldhisstylebestbecharacterized?Courtlymannerofgreatelegance,anddramaticcompositionsofgreatquality.

    37.InwhattypeofsubjectmatterdidClaraPeetersspecialize?Stilllifes.

    38.HowdidthereligiousandeconomicconditionsinseventeenthcenturyHollandeffectartisticpatronageandproduction?

    a. AmsterdamhadthehighestpercapitaincomeinEuropeandenjoyedwide

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