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WWII Friday Homework Back Quiz Back Letter Notebook Review Essay.

Dec 26, 2015

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Page 1: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

WWII

Page 2: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Friday

Homework BackQuiz BackLetterNotebookReview Essay

Page 3: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Homework

Cold War– People 1-11– Terms 1-19, 23- 25– Due March 19

Modern Europe– People 12-23– Terms 20-22 26-36– Due March 29

Page 4: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Changes & Problems in Governing

Europe After WWI

Page 5: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Europe’s Influence

Loss of dominance in world affairs

Japan, US in better financial shape

Europe drained of resources

Page 6: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

New Democracies1914-1918 Euro’s last absolute

rulers overthrownNew democracies were unstable

– Little experience– Fr. & Italy- inefficiency due to too

many political parties (majority)– Coalition govt.- temporary

alliance to achieve majority

Page 7: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Why Dawes Plan?

Germany defaults on reparations–France takes Ruhr

France demands gold, not inflated dollars

Page 8: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

1924 Dawes PlanHelped Germany recover from

inflation– Strengthen economy– $200 mil loan from US– Realistic schedule for reparations

1929 factories returned to 1913 levels

Page 9: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

MondayPass In ChecksCalendarChanges to ReviewWeb SiteQuestions

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Treaties Bring HopeGer. & Fr. Foreign Ministers G.

Stresemann & A. Briand- undo worst features of Treaty– Locarno Treaty- Fr. & Ger. Not

go to war, Ger. Respected Belgian and French borders, Ger. Admitted into League

Page 11: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Treaties Bring HopeKellogg-Briand Pact- war

renounced– Signed by almost every country– No way to enforce- League had no

power

American economy basis of Euro economy

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Weimar Republic

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Weimar RepublicEst. 1919Weak- no democratic experience7 major political partiesWWI defeat associated w/ govt.Inflation- during war money

printed as neededOnly mistake= losing war

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Technology Makes World

Smaller

Page 15: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

AutomobileWartime improvements- electric

fuel pumps & starters, air-filled tires, powerful engines

Look of car improved

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Air Travel1918 planes fly 100’s miles

– Use for airmail

1927 Lindbergh- 1st nonstop solo transatlantic flight

1930’s passenger airlines– Only for rich

Earhart- 1st women to cross Atlantic

Page 17: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

RadioWWI led to push for development

of wireless radio– Research given high priority

1920- 1st commercial radio station1925 Radio was $25

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Changes in Society

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New Individual FreedomsBreak from tradition

– Consider new ideas

Why: WWI interrupted social patterns & customs– Young people more willing to

change

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WomenWork in WWI brings suffrageMost still followed traditionSome followed new lifestyle

– Women equal partners w/ husband

Women in medicine, education, journalism

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Art Reflects Social DoubtsHorrors of WWI reflectedTS Eliot- world drained of hope

– “The Wasteland”

F. Kafka- people caught in circumstances they could not understand or escape

J. Joyce- break from traditional sentence structure

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Art Reflects Social DoubtsSurrealists- influenced by

Freud’s ideas on unconscious mind– Freud- behavior explained using

past experiences

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American Culture SpreadsWWI proved US economic,

political, cultural powerDistinct contribution= jazz

– Phonograph & radio spread

Harlem Renaissance- African American arts

Motion pictures-– 90% came from Hollywood

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Social PatternsChildren raised differently

– Strong father, loving mother– Freud’s Oedipus Complex– Parents began to take on both

roles

Education less strict– Girls and boys- same schools

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Effects of the Great

Depression

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Causes:Overproduction &

underconsumptionPlight of farmers

– Wartime production levels = Surplus

Speculation in Stock– Wall Street losses- economic &

psychological consequences• Doubt, fear replace optimism

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The Downward Spiral

People lost money

Production decreased

Layoffs increased

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Depression SpreadsUS economic crash felt worldwide

– Investors call back foreign loans– Hard impact on Europe (esp. Ger.,

Austria depended on for war debts)– 1929-1932-

• world manufacturing fell 65%

• international trade fell 65%

• unemployment skyrockets

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BritainSeverely hurt- relied on foreign

trade1931 Coalition cabinet elected

(National Govt.)– High protective tariff– Regulate currency– Increase taxes– Lower interest (production)

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Britain1937 unemployment rate cut in

half– Production at 1929 levels

Mood of discouragement persists

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France1930 still agricultural

– Less dependent on foreign trade– Less impacted by Depression

Radicals wanted to end democracy and est. dictatorship– Popular Front- moderates,

socialists, communists

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FrancePopular Front- pay increases,

reforms for workers– Unemployment remains high

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Fascism

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FascismPeople lost faith during Great

DepressionFascist promises:

– Revive economy– Restore National Pride– Punish those responsible for

economic hard time

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Fascism

Ideology stressing nationalismInterests of the state more

important than the individualPower held by single leader or

small group of party membersReaction against Communism

– People more loyal to social class not nation

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Enemy= Communism

SimilaritiesDictatorial one

man rule Individuals

denied rightsSupremacy of

state

DifferencesFascism- no

classless society– Aristocrats,

industrialist

Communism- Dictatorship of the Proletariat– internationalist

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Italians Turn to FascismAfter WWI Italians felt defeated

– War causalities– Did not gain land promised

Food shortages, rising prices, unemployment, business failures

Peasants seize land,workers revoltSocialist, Communists groups

emerge– Another Bolshevik revolution?

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Benito MussoliniTeacher of FascismHitler’s teacherNamed Fascism- root Roman

Fasces – Ax- symbol of power

Becomes Il Duce- leader of Italy

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Benito MussoliniInitially a SocialistWWI organized Fascist partyWanted to bring back glory and

military strength of ancient Rome

Revive economy1922 Appointed PM by Victor

Emmanuel II (legal)

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Mussolini’s Support

Business ownersGovt. officialsLandowners

– End strikes– End workers’

political power

Middleclass SoldiersWar Veterans

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Mussolini’s PoliciesDemocracy weak – Dictatorship est.

(no political parties)– Use of secret police, censorship

All production into nationwide “syndicates” (State Corps)– Organized like corporations– Controlled wages, prices, working

hours (command capitalism)Farmers urged to use modern

methods

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Policies continued…It became harder to leave

countrySingle men taxedJobs for women limitedBuilding families encouraged

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Fascist StatesItaly (Mussolini)Germany (Hitler)Japan (Tojo)Spain (Franco)

– until 1970’s

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Rise of Hitler

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Weimar RepublicCreated 1919-under Hindenburg Republican constitutionParliamentary govt.

– Germans had little experience with democracy

– Democracy seen as weak– Germans used to strict rule

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Weimar OppositionOpposed by left and rightCommunists wanted govt. like

RussiaGerman nationalists, military,

landowners, opposed govt.Industrialists feared govt.

takeover of industryPeople felt Republic betrayed

them by urging peace

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Page 62: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Hitler’s BeginningsBorn Austria, 1889HS dropout

– Study art in Vienna

Vienna- Jews among intellectual, financial leaders– Beginning of hatred for Jews

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Hitler Emerges…Served for Germany during

WWI- won Iron Cross– Wanted to overturn Treaty

Began as govt. spy (on Nazis)1920’s Organized the Nazis1923 Failed Beer Hall Putsch

– Take over Bavarian govt.– Hitler put in jail, writes Mein

Kampf

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Mein KampfDictated to Rudolf HessOutline of political viewsThemes:

– Racism (Jews were reason for German problems)

– Nationalism (Aryans were master race, lebenstraum)

Released from jail in 9 months

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Why Hitler?Economic crisis

–People out of work–Hunger–Insecurity–Restlessness

Hitler gave people:–Enemy to hate–Cause to fight for

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Hitler Gains SupportUsed violence and speechesLess wealthy- Hitler would protect

them from large industrialists, Communists

Unemployed-Hitler’s private army– Food, clothing, shelter, cause

Industrialists, bankers, landowners- liked stand against Communists, promise to rebuild Germany

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Hitler Gains Power Jan. 30, 1933 Hitler made

chancellor by Hindenburg –Hoped to contain the Nazis

Feb. 27, 1933- Dutch communist Martinus van der Lubbe set fire to Reichstag

March 1933 Reichstag elections Nazi’s win 43% of vote–Reichstag passes Enabling Act-

Hitler given dictatorial power

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Hitler’s Early Policies Trade unions bannedPolitical parties eliminatedArmy and secret police

– Brown Shirts (SA)- Hitler’s personal army (early 1920’s)

– Gestapo- secret state police – SS-Hitler’s body guard (1925)

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Early Policies cont…Nuremberg Laws-Anti-Semitism- became official

govt. policyJews lost citizenship1933- Jews forbidden from

holding govt. jobs or owning businesses

Not fly flag, write, teach, bankers

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Night of Long KnivesJune 30, 1934SS ordered to eliminate any

threats within the partyAs many as 1,000 killedViolence shocked people into

obedience

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KristallnachtNight of broken glassCause: young Jew killed German

diplomat in Paris Nov 9-10, 1938- Nazis set fire to

synagogues in Germany, Austria, Sudetenland –Jewish home and stores looted–Many Jews killed or wounded,

1000’s arrested–Result- 1000’s of Jews flee

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Nazi’s Rebuild Economy

Businesses aided– Public works programs– Arms industry secretly revived

Unemployment rate of 6 million reduced to 0

Propaganda used to increase support

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Italy and Germany’s

March to War

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Fascist AggressionItalian Expansion

–Mussolini builds army–1935 Ethiopia invaded

• League of Nations denounces action and urges boycott of arms to Italy

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Spanish Civil WarRepublican govt. replaced

monarch2 sides: (war between ideologies)

– Falangists (Fascists) under Franco– Republicans (anti-Fascists)

Hitler and Mussolini aid FascistsStalin and volunteers from US,

France, England aid Republicans1939- Franco becomes dictator

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Page 109: WWII Friday  Homework Back  Quiz Back  Letter  Notebook  Review Essay.

Fascist AggressionGerman rearmament and

expansion (Turning Point)– Weimar Govt. tried to change treaty

through diplomacy– Hitler vows to destroy treaty-

rebuilds military– 1936 Rhineland remilitarized– Hitler believed no action would be

taken• GB and France condemn, but take no

action

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1936 Rome-Berlin AxisHitler’s strength leads to

agreement w/ MussoliniEurope come to rotate around

them

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AppeasementGiving into other’s demands in

order to avoid conflictFollowed by GB and France

towards GermanyAfter WWI people wanted peace

at any price (ignored Hitler’s advances)

GB cut military spending- focus on economy

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Why Appeasement?France needed help of GB to

take on HitlerMany in GB believed Treaty of

Versailles was too harshMany in GB believed Stalin and

Communism was more of a threat than Hitler

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German AdvancesResult of appeasement- Hitler

continues to enlarge German territory

Self-determination- Bring German speaking together in Third Reich

1938 Anschluss- Union of Germany and Austria (Austria threatened with use of force)

Czechoslovakia- Hitler wanted the Sudetenland

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Munich Peace AgreementIssue= Sudetenland (3 million

Germans live here)Mussolini, Chamberlain, Daladier

meet with Hitler– Give Hitler Sudetenland if he would

stop expansion– Student becomes teacher

Result- Hitler not satisfied and takes all of Czechoslovakia– Chamberlain no “Peace in our time”

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Beginning of War for

Germany

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The Coming WarMarch 1939- Germany turn to

Poland to recover Polish Corridor– Hitler demands port of Danzig,

RR’s and highways through the corridor to East Prussia

Poland refuses demands– France and GB give support

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The Coming War August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact-

– Distrust between France, GB, Russia prevented alliance

– Soviet Union agreed to let Germany invade Poland in return for land in Eastern Europe

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The War BeginsSept. 1, 1939- Germany invades

PolandSept. 4, 1939- GB and France

declare war on Germany***WWII BEGINS***

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The Sides

Allies–England–France–Poland–Later USA–Later USSR

Axis–Germany–Austria–Italy–USSR–Japan

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Blitzkrieg in Eastern Europe Blitzkrieg- German style of

warfare consisting of quick, concentrated attacks on land and sea (reaction against WWI)

Sept. 27, 1939- Poland surrenders – Hitler and Stalin divide Poland

USSR sets up bases in Baltic States for invasion of Finland

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Blitzkrieg in Western Europe“Phony War”- No real fighting

in winter of 1939-19401940 Germans begin advances

in Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg

France establishes the Maginot Line- heavily defended forts along German, French border

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Invasion of FranceMaginot LineGermany attacks through Belgium

– Divides the Allies (Paris and coast)– Dunkirk- 300,000 Allies retreat, all

available vessels sent to rescue troops

– **GB united and inspired against Hitler**

– Germans continue through France

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French ResistanceFree FrenchLed by C. de Gaulle Secret, underground resistance

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France is Conquered June 10, 1940- Mussolini declares

war on FranceJune 14- Germans march on Paris

– France surrenders to save Paris from destruction

French sign armistice where Germany surrendered WWI– Germany occupied N. France– Puppet Govt. est in S. France= Vichy

Govt. (Petain’s govt.)

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Britain Holds Out Winston Churchill (PM)-

refuses to give in to HitlerAug 8, 1940- Battle of Britain

– By fall German losses cause Hitler to give up (Hitler promised people they would not be hurt)

– Hitler continues the blitz until Spring 1941

– Air raids avoids GB’s navy

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Battle of Britain“Blitz”- Britain bombed day

and nightRAF aided by radar- used to

spot enemy aircraftAllies broke German secret

codeGerman subs block shipmentsUS still officially neutral

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US Role in Battle of Britain

March 1941- Congress passes Lend-Lease Act – FDR could sell, lease or lend

military equipment to countries whose defense was vital to US security

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Allied Drive to Victory

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Invasion of USSRJune 22 1941 Hitler invadesWhy USSR?

– Hates Communism – Land for German settlers– Grain for Germans– Oil, coal, iron ore for war effort

GB and US immediately help– Offer Lend-Lease Act

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Seize of LeningradRussia initially devastated2 year siege, 3 million trapped

– 1 million die of disease and starvation

– First year: 2.5 million soldiers lost“Scorched-earth”- withdraw

from Germans destroying fields and equipment

Winter helps Russians win- troops from Siberia arrive

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Battle of StalingradSpring/Summer 1942Strategic city in terms of north-

south transportationAugust 600 planes bomb city

– 40,000 Russians killed– Russians refuse to surrender

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The Tide TurnsMarshal Zhukov plans counter-

attack–Encircle German army-Stalingrad

Hitler refuses to let Germans surrender–Feb. 1943- last German

surrenders against Hitler’s order**Turning point in Eastern

Europe**–Soviets begin push toward Berlin

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North African CampaignFirst year of war- Mussolini

works to est. control of Mediterranean

Libya (Italian colony) unsuccessfully invades Egypt trying to take control of Suez Canal (from GB)

Germany sends Afrika Corps led by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel to protect Libya

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Africa cont…Rommel battles GB for more

than a year1942 GB sends Field Marshal

Bernard Montgomery to block Rommel’s advance to the Suez– El Alamein- retreating GB begins

counterattack– Rommel driven from Africa– First major British victory

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US in AfricaDec. 1941- Germany declares war

on USNov. 1942 Allied forces led by

General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrive in French Morocco and Algeria– French commander helps even

though colonies were controlled by Vichy Govt.

– Allies trap Afrika Corp

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Results in AfricaMay 1943- Allies held all N.

AfricaAllies control Suez CanalAfrica would serve as a base to

launch attacks into Southern Europe

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Europe Under HitlerSize of Hitler’s Empire

– Atlantic to USSR– Norway to North Africa

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War in the PacificJapanese Aggression

– 1937 Japan invades Chiang Kai-shek’s China

– Hitler’s moves against West gave Japan a chance to expand in Pacific

– Desire to create “Greater East Asia Company Prosperity Sphere”- supply Japan with raw materials, food, new markets

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Pearl HarborOnly US could challenge

Japanese expansionUS embargo- ban of sale of raw

materials to JapanJapan joins Axis Powers

believing war with US was unavoidable

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Pearl HarborDec. 7, 1941- attack on Pearl HarborEasy targets- ships in harbor, planes on

runawaysMuch of Pacific fleet and air force

destroyedSame time Japan attacks US islands in

Pacific and British holdingsDec.8 1941-US,GB declare war on

Japan– Germany, Italy declare war on US

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Victories for the AlliesEnd of 1942- Allies on offensive

in Asia and EuropeThe surrender of Italy

– Italy attacked from North Africa– July 1943- GB, US land in Sicily,

later in month Mussolini overthrown

– Germany remains in Italy– Rome captured in 1944 (Italians

helped) (Badoglio leader)

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Invasion of FranceGen. Eisenhower leads Allies

across English ChannelOperation Overlord

– Hitler knew of preparations, but where invasions

– Allies use phantom army, radio messages that could be decoded

June 6, 1944 D-Day- Allies land in Normandy

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Invasion of France

–150,000 landed at 5 beaches–Omaha, Juno, Sword- major–Germans caught off guard –1 million Allied troops in

France within month–End of August- Paris freed–Free French join Allies

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Defeat of GermanyFall 1944 Germans hopeless

– Soviets on East– US, GB on West

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Battle of the BulgeMid Dec. 1944Germans attack US soldiers at

German border near Belgium, Luxembourg

Germans break through linesUS holds key towns and roadsGermans halt offensive- ran out

of gas, unable to crush US

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The EndJan. 1945- Allies take German

gainsApril 1945- US and Soviet

troops meet in Eastern EuropeApril 30,1945- Hitler commits

suicide in underground quarters in Berlin

May 8, 1945 VE Day- Germany surrenders unconditionally

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WWII’s AftermathMost costly war in human

history– 50 million dead– 10 million die in concentration

camps– Homeless refugees– Vast areas of destruction

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Heinrich HimmlerHe carried out Nazi racial policies

– “Aryan Superiority”

Policy- enslave, destroy all “inferiors”– Jews, Poles, Russians, etc.

Racial “Cousins”- people of Germanic descent– Re-educate to be valued citizen in

“Greater Germany”

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Racial PoliciesConquered people who looked

German were taken and sent to Germany– Brought up as Germans– More people needed to populate

“Greater Germany”

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Poland CapturedSoviets in Poland- carried on

programs of murder and terror– 1 million sent to forced labor camps– Any threats to Stalinist rule

eliminatedGermans in Poland- concentration

camps used for political prisoners– Farm families relocated to make

room for Germans

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Germans and their Conquered

Germans took food, weapons, and art from conquered

Labor demanded from conquered– 7 million sent to labor camps in

Germany• Died of disease, hunger, exhaustion

– 5 million Russians taken• 3.5 million died

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The HolocaustReinhard Heydrich- Himmler’s

deputy and chief planner of Nazi program to rid Europe of Jews– “The Final Solution to the Jewish

problem”- genocideHolocaust- systematic murder of

European Jews– Jews rounded up, put in cattle

cars and sent to death camps

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Life in Death CampsMethods of killing:

– Gas chambers, torture, starvation, beatings

Medical experiments6 million Jews killedAuschwitz (Poland)- 2 million

died here

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Resistance MovementsNazis did meet opposition

– Hit and run attacks on German forces

– Strikes, blowing up factories, underground newspapers, relaying info to Allies, rescuing prisoners

– “Govts. in exile”- govts. fled occupied countries

– Citizens escaped and joined GB

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Resistance GroupsDanish Resistance- Denmark’s 8,000

Jews were smuggled into neutral Sweden

Civilian killed for each German soldier killed– Heydrich killed by Czech.

Resistance- Czech village wiped out in revenge

Free French- led by Charles de Gaulle– Survivors of Dunkirk and others

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War Crime Trials Nazi leaders arrested and

charged with “crimes against humanity”

Nuremberg Trials- Nov. 1945– World learned of Nazi horrors– ½ of officers tried were sentenced

to death– Japanese officers also tried

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46 DaysQuestions about Review Essays

Homework outQuiz

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DBQPOV Still can Improve

Outside HistoryGroupings

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Postwar Europe

Allies held 3 summits (meetings between top govt. officials) during the war– Tehran, Iran– Yalta, USSR– Potsdam, Germany

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Tehran Conference

Nov. 1943Present- Churchill, Stalin, FDR

– “Big Three”

Plan- discuss war strategy for Europe– Normandy invasion planned

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YaltaFeb 1945 the “Big Three” meetStalin agrees to free elections in

Soviet occupied Eastern Europe– Puppet govts. had already been est.

Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan when Germany defeated (for land in Asia)

United Nations developedDivision of Germany into temporary

occupation zones

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PotsdamJuly 1945Present- Stalin, Churchill, and

Truman/AtleeStalin refuses to hold free elections

– It would be “anti-Soviet”

Disagreements over Eastern Europe would split Allies– Raise fears of another world war