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World War II European Theater, Pacific Theater, and the Immediate Aftermath of WWII

Mar 26, 2015

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World War II European Theater, Pacific Theater, and the Immediate Aftermath of WWII Slide 2 Slide 3 Significance of Non-Aggression Pact With the assurance that the Soviet Union would not attack Germany Hitler made his move on Poland. On September 1, 1939 Hitlers troops stormed across the border of Poland. On September 3, 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany and WWII had begun. Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Blitzkrieg Hitlers attack on Poland unveiled the Nazi strategy of war called the Blitzkrieg. The word means lightening war. It involved using fast-moving airplanes and tanks, followed by massive numbers of troops. Slide 7 Slide 8 The Soviets Get their Prize Part of the agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany was a secret pact that said the Soviets would get half of Poland and be able to take control of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Next the Soviets attacked Finland, but things were not as easy to defeat as the others. It would take a year to defeat them. Slide 9 Slide 10 Hitler and the Germans take Denmark and Norway On April 9, 1940 Hitler launched a surprise invasion of Norway and Denmark. Denmark fell in two days and Norway two months later. This set the stage for the invasion of France, and gave Germany bases to launch attacks on Britain. Slide 11 Slide 12 The Invasion of France In May of 1940 Hitler sent troops through the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. Next he sent troops through the Ardennes, a heavily wooded area in Northern France, Luxemburg, and Belgium. They reached the Northern coast of France in the next ten days. Slide 13 Slide 14 Dunkirk After uniting with other German forces coming through Belgium. Soon they had trapped the Allied troops in the small port town of Dunkirk. To save the British army from complete destruction the British sent a fleet of 850 ships across the English Channel to Dunkirk. Along with navy ships hundreds of civilian ships helped save the British army. A month later France surrendered. Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Battle of Britain With the surrender of France on June 22, 1940, Great Britain was left alone to fight against Nazi Germany. The new prime minister of Britain, Winston Churchill, proclaimed that the British would fight the Germans in every way possible. Meanwhile, Hitler was planning its attack. Slide 19 Slide 20 Hitlers plan of Attack First, knock out the RAF (British air force). Second, land 250,000 or more men on Englands shores. Slide 21 Slide 22 Britains Advantages Two things that gave the British an advantage over the Germans. First, was radar. This allowed them to track German Luftwaffe before they got to Britain. Second, the British had stolen the Enigma Machine from the Germans allowing them to break the German code. Slide 23 Slide 24 Britain is Victorious When the bombing of Britain began Germany focused on the RAF bases, but in September of 1940 they began bombing the cities. Despite terrible conditions caused by the bombings the RAF were able to fight back against the Luftwaffe. On May 10, 1941 Hitler called of the attack on Britain and focused on the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe. Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 The War in North Africa While the Battle of Britain raged, Italy struck the British in North Africa. They fought to a stalemate. Then the British struck back, and soon were driven the Italians back. However, in mid-1941 Hitler sent his best general Erwin Rommel. Rommel, aka the Desert Fox quickly restored the Axis control of North Africa. Slide 30 Slide 31 Note Quiz What country did Germany invade on September 1, 1939? What was the strategy the Germans used and what did it involve? What countries did the Soviet Union get as a result of the non-aggression pact with Germany? Describe the German invasion of France. What happened at Dunkirk? Slide 32 Hitler Stabs the Soviets in the Back With North Africa under control for awhile, and the Balkans under control Hitler now turned his attention towards the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941 German tanks and airplanes roared across the the border of the Soviet Union. The Soviets were not prepared for this. Slide 33 Slide 34 Invasion For weeks the Germans moved steadily across the Soviet Union. Eventually, pushing 500 miles into the Soviet Union. On September 8, 1941 Hitlers troops besieged the city of Leningrad. To force surrender Hitler wanted to starve the city. Despite, losing 1 million between 1941-42 the city refused to fall. Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Hitler Moves on Moscow Impatient with the progress at Leningrad Hitler moved on the capital of Moscow. By December of 1941 the Nazis were on the outskirts of the city. Then the Soviets dug in, and refused to move. Next, and most importantly the Russian winter set in, and Hitler refused to retreat. This set the stage for what would become one of Hitlers greatest defeat, and his undoing. Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 The United States Aids its Allies Most Americans still felt the United States should stay out of the war. However, President Roosevelt felt the U.S needed to do something. In March 1941 the United States passed the Lend-Lease Act. This allowed the President to lend or lease war supplies to any country vital to the U.S. Slide 42 Slide 43 Other American Steps Also, the United States began using Navy ships to escort British ships back to Europe. This was to protect them from German U-Boats that patrolled the Atlantic. The United States then signed the Atlantic Charter with the British. This upheld free trade, and the right of a person to choose their own government. On September 4, 1941 a German U-Boat fired on a U.S Navy destroyer and the U.S entered an undeclared naval war with Germany. Slide 44 A Quick Review Non-Aggression Pact Invasion of Poland Blitzkrieg Soviet Union and their prizes Invasion of France Dunkirk Battle of Britain Germany and North Africa Invasion of Soviet Union Lend-Lease Program Slide 45 Problems with Japan By 1940 the United States were not only being hunted by the Germans, the Japanese also held a grudge against the United States. Due to the United States placing an embargo on Japan the Japanese were short on oil and other supplies for their war in the Pacific. This led to the inevitable. Slide 46 Slide 47 The Plan Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto came up with the plan to rid the Japanese their problems in the Pacific. It called for a simultaneous assault on the British and Dutch in Southeast Asia and the United States fleet in the Pacific located in Hawaii. Slide 48 Slide 49 The Day of Infamy On December 7, 1941 the Japanese launched the attack. The British, Dutch, and U.S. were caught by surprise. At Pearl Harbor the Japanese sunk or damaged 19 ships, and more than 2300 Americans were killed. The next day Roosevelt called 12/7/41 a date which will live in infamy. Congress quickly accepted his request to declare war on Japan and its Allies. Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 54 Other Japanese Victories The Japanese conquered U.S. held Guam and Wake Island. They also took the Philippines. In Southeast Asia they took the Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, and Burma. Slide 55 Slide 56 The Allies Retaliate First, the United States launched an air raid on Japan. This became known as the Doolittle Raid. The Battle of the Coral Sea. The Allies stopped the Japanese advance south. The next battle would determine the fate of the Pacific. Slide 57 Slide 58 Slide 59 Battle of Midway This is the turning point of the war in the Pacific. Thanks to United States code breakers the U.S. military learned of the Japanese plan to attack the base at Midway Island. When the Japanese on June 4 th 1942 they met the United States navy in full force. By June 7 th, 1942 the Japanese fleet was crippled. The Allies would stay on the offensive for the rest of the war in the Pacific. Slide 60 Slide 61 Slide 62 The Beginning of a Tragedy Kristallnacht- The Night of Broken Glass This was a violent uprising against Jews in Germany. It was caused by the murder of a German diplomat by a Jewish youth who sought to avenge his father who had been deported. Close to 100 Jews were murdered, and thousands of homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed. This event marked the beginning of the Holocaust. Slide 63 Slide 64 Slide 65 Jewish Migration Realizing that the situation in Germany was bad many Jews began to leave. At first, Hitler favored this solution to what he called the Jewish problem. However, many countries began to close their borders to the Jews. This led to Hitler moving to a harsher plan to deal with the people he believed to be inferior. Slide 66 Slide 67 The Ghettos Hitler soon ordered that all Jews be moved into designated cities. Their the Nazis had created specific areas of the cities. These areas became known as ghettos. Conditions in the ghettos were very bad. They were overcrowded, sealed off from outside contact, their was little food, and many were murdered by Nazi soldiers. Slide 68 Slide 69 Slide 70 The Final Solution Hitler grew impatient with the ghettos. His next plan was called the final solution. It was actually a program of genocide, the systematic killing of an entire people. The Nazis sought to murder the Gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, the insane, the disable, and the incurably ill. But it especially focused on the Jews. Slide 71 Slide 72 The Killings Begin As Nazi troops swept across Europe units of SS soldiers went from town to town to hunt down the Jews. These units rounded up men, women, children, and even babies and murdered them in isolated places. Those that were not murdered were sent to work camps called concentration camps. Where many were beaten and worked to death. Slide 73 Slide 74 The Extermination Camps The last stage began in 1942. This involved shipping the Jews to camps such Auschwitz, Treblinka, and Sobibor.