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World politics 2

Jan 13, 2017

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Iraq

1. Huynh Thanh Nguyen 12580422. Le Hoang Phuong Anh12580043. Ngo Thi Xuan Uyen 12580924. Pham Hung Thinh 12580765. Nguyen Tan Huy1258023

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Introduction

From earliest time Iraq was known as Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The people built advanced irrigation systems, developed cereal agriculture, and invented the earliest form of writing. They created a math system which our system is based on today as well as the wheel and first plow

Ancient History

Iraq land mass: 437,367 sq km

Desert

Mid-cool winters

Dry/hot/cloudless summer

Extensive floods caused by Near by mountain

Population :31,129,225

The people of Iraq

Iraqi Muslims are split in two groups, The Sunni and the Shia.

They share the fundamental Islamic beliefs

Main difference is political

When the Prophet Mohamed died, the Sunni believed anyone could be the religious leader, while the Shia believe only descendants of Mohamed could.

Shia is the majority in Iraq, but the minority in the middle east.

What is the difference between the Sunni and Shia

Social Indicators

US troops in Iraq

Nearly a quarter of Iraqs children suffer from chronic malnutrition. The probability of dying before 40 for Iraqi children born between 2000 and 2004 is approximately three times the level in neighboring countries. Three out of four Iraqi families report an unstable supply of electricity. 40 percent of families in urban areas live in neighborhoods where sewage can be seen in the streets. More than 722,000 Iraqi families have no access to either safe or stable drinking water. The jobless rate for young men with secondary or higher education stands at 37 percent.

Demographic Pressure

Group GrievanceReligious Violence

Discrimination

Religious conflict

Women in Iraq

Social indicatorsPopulation growth rate (avg. annual %)2005-20102.2Population aged 0-14 years (%)200941.1Population aged 60+ years (women and men, % of total)20095.6/3.9Sex ratio (men per 100 women)2009102.3Life expectancy at birth (women and men, years)2005-201071.7/63.5Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)2005-201033.2Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)2005-20104.1Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (w/m per 100)2005-200865.8/83.4UNESCO estimate. Education: Female third-level students (% of total)2005-200836.2UNESCO estimate. Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)200925.5

Economic Indicators

Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector

Contains 112 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, the second largest in the world (behind Saudi Arabia)

Military Expenditures

8 years war with Iran

Before the war:

Oil production: 560,000 m (3.5 million barrels)/day in 1979

Oil revenues: 21 billion dollars

After the war:

Depleted Iraq's foreign exchange reserves

Devastated its economy

Iraq suffered economic losses of at least $80billionfrom the war

2. International economic sanctions

A near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by theUnited Nations Security Councilon the Iraqi Republic

Limitations on imports: no complete list of items that could not be imported into Iraq

Limitations on exports and the Oil For Food Program: the Iraqi people may face a further imminent catastrophe, which could include epidemic and famine

Allocation of export proceeds

72% was allocated to the humanitarian Program

25% was allocated to the Compensation Fund for war reparation payments

2.2% for United Nations administrative and operational costs

0.8% for the weapons inspection program

Effects on the Iraqi people during sanctions:

High rates of malnutrition

Lack of medical supplies

Diseases from lack of clean water

High infant and children death rate

3. International DebtIraqs external debt following the end of the Saddam regime was approximately $130 billion.

Paris Club Debt Claims : $37.15 billion, including interest

Iraqs debt to the United States: debt to approximately $4.1 billion.

Non-Paris Club Debt Claims :

Two-thirds of Iraqs debt is held by non-Paris Club countries.

Commercial Debt Claims:

Iraqs debt to commercial creditors: $15 billion _ U.S. dollar: denominated debt accounted for 72% of all claims

_ Japanese Yen (17%) and in Euros (8%)

Regional Distribution of Iraqs Commercial Claims

Political Indicators

Islamic State Army has more man than expectedIslamic State (IS) - formerly the "Islamic State of Iraq and Syria" (ISIS)

Foreign observers estimated 20,000-50,000

IS have more than 100,000

The IS is extended from previous groups

Former military officers or children.

Former military officers or children

Children appeared in the training camp.Members divided between Iraq and Syria.Expert in logistic and business.

Conclusion

Security apparatus of Iraq

PM Abbadi has sacked dozens of army and police officers in an effort to restructure and improve security forces

Thank for your attention

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