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World Economic Forum Africa Competitiveness Report_2011

May 09, 2015

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World Economic Forum Africa Competitiveness Report_2011

  • 1.AfricaTheCompetitiveness Report 2011

2. The Africa CompetitivenessReport 2011The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 2011 World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the African Development Bank 3. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 is the result ofCopyright 2011collaboration between the World Economic Forum, theby the World Economic Forum, theWorld Bank, and the African Development Bank.International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, the African Development Bank, and the AfricaAT THE WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM CommissionProfessor Klaus SchwabExecutive Chairman Published by the World Economic Forum, Geneva.Robert GreenhillChief Business Officer The findings, interpretations, and conclusionsJennifer Blankeexpressed herein are those of the author(s)Lead Economist, Head of the Centre for and do not necessarily reflect the views ofGlobal Competitiveness and Performance the Executive Directors of The World Bank,Ciara Browne the African Development Bank, or the gov-Associate Director ernments they represent.Katherine Tweedie The World Bank, the African DevelopmentDirector, Africa Bank, and the World Economic Forum do not guarantee accuracy of the data includedAT THE WORLD BANKin this work. The boundaries, colors, denomi- nations, and other information shown on anyRobert Zoellick map in this work do not imply any judgmentPresident on the part of The World Bank, the AfricanShantayanan DevarajanDevelopment Bank, or the World EconomicChief Economist, Africa Region Forum concerning the legal status of any ter-Marilou Uy ritory or the endorsement or acceptance ofSector Director, Finance & Private Sectorsuch boundaries.Development, Africa Region All rights reserved. No part of this publica-Michael Fuchs tion may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalActing Sector Manager, Finance & Private system, or transmitted, in any form or by anySector Development, Africa Region means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,Giuseppe Iarossi or otherwise without the prior permission ofSenior Economist, Finance & Private Sector the World Economic Forum.Development, Africa Region The terms country and nation as used in this report do not in all cases refer to a territorialAT THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK entity that is a state as understood by inter-Donald Kaberukanational law and practice. The terms coverPresidentwell-defined, geographically self-containedMthuli Ncube economic areas that may not be states butChief Economist & Vice President, ECON for which statistical data are maintained on aComplexseparate and independent basis.Dsir VencatachellumISBN-13: 978-92-95044-97-5Director, Development Research DepartmentPeter OndiegeChief Research Economist, DevelopmentResearch DepartmentZuzana BrixiovaPrincipal Research Economist, DevelopmentResearch DepartmentWe thank the Africa Commission and the DanishGovernment for their financial contribution tothis Report.We thank Hope Steele for her superb editingwork and Neil Weinberg for his excellent graphicdesign and layout. Printing by SRO-Kundig.The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 2011 World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the African Development Bank 4. ContentsPreface...................................................................................................vby Donald Kaberuka (African Development Bank Group),Part 3: Competitiveness ProfilesSren Pind (Ministry of Development of Denmark),How to Read the Competitiveness Profiles .................115Klaus Schwab (World Economic Forum), and RobertList of Countries .............................................................123Zoellick (World Bank Group)Competitiveness Profiles ...............................................124Acknowledgments............................................................................viiAbout the Authors..................................................................195Overview..............................................................................................xiPart 1: Assessing African Competitiveness1.1 Exports, FDI, and Competitiveness in Africa.......................3by Jennifer Blanke (World Economic Forum),Zuzana Brixiova (African Development Bank), UriDadush (Carnegie Endowment), Tugba Gurcanlar(World Bank), and Giuseppe Iarossi (World Bank)Part 2: Capitalizing on Africas Resources2.1 Reforming Higher Education: Access, Equity,and Financing in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya,South Africa, and Tunisia.......................................................39by Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong (University ofSouthern Florida) and Peter Ondiege (AfricanDevelopment Bank)2.2 Strengthening Womens Entrepreneurship........................67by Mary Hallward-Driemeier (World Bank)2.3 Assessing Africas Travel & Tourism Competitivenessin the Wake of the Global Economic Crisis ......................89by Jennifer Blanke and Ciara Browne (WorldEconomic Forum) and Andres F. Garcia andHannah R. Messerli (World Bank) The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 2011 World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the African Development Bank 5. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 2011 World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the African Development Bank 6. PrefacePrefaceDONALD KABERUKA, President, African Development Bank GroupSREN PIND, Minister of Development of DenmarkKLAUS SCHWAB, Executive Chairman, World Economic ForumROBERT B. ZOELLICK, President, World Bank GroupThe Africa Competitiveness Report 2011, the third reportTo grow further and be globally competitive,jointly published by our organizations, comes out at a Africa needs to put in place the conditions for a vibranttime when Africas recovery from the global economic private sector. The time is propitious to support reformcrisis has been faster than it has in many other parts ofand to help Africa improve its competitiveness andthe world. Indeed, Africa has seen what can be termedgrowth prospects. In todays interconnected world,an economic resurgence over the past decade: between Africas prosperity is important to all of us, both as a2001 and 2010, gross domestic product growth on thesource of global growth and to promote an inclusivecontinent averaged 5.2 percent annuallya rate alsoand sustainable globalization.expected in 2011, and higher than the global average of4.2 percent.Questions remain, however, as to how sustainablethis growth will be over the longer term. Recent eventsin North Africa suggest that much remains to be doneto place Africas economic development on a moresolid footing.The Africa Competitiveness Report highlights areaswhere we need urgent policy action and investment to vensure that Africa sustains its economic recovery andcontinues to grow in the future. It maps out the conti-nents policy challenges and presents a unified vision,shared by all our organizations, of the areas requiringcritical attention. The Report can serve as a useful toolfor African decision makers in public and privatespheres to measure the business climate potential forfostering sustainable growth and prosperity.As such, we hope this years Report will stimulatediscussion in both the private and public sectors on theissues at stake. The private sector can play a vital rolein the process of reform. As essential stakeholders, busi-nesses can support and advocate both for reforms thatenhance competitiveness and for initiatives that createjobs. Governments will want to emphasize a soundbusiness climate as a catalyst for long-term shared growthand prosperity.The Africa Competitiveness Report focuses on har-nessing Africas underutilized resources: skills, femaleentrepreneurship, and natural and cultural resources.The Report also contains in-depth assessments of thestate of competitiveness, the impact of foreign directinvestment on the continent, and the trade performanceof the region, including the potential of increased pro-ductivity growth in agriculture and agribusiness. Its finalsections provide detailed competitiveness profiles forseveral African countries. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 2011 World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the African Development Bank 7. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 2011 World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the African Development Bank 8. AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgmentsThe Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 was preparedForum we thank Amrote Abdella, Ciara Browne,by a joint team comprised of Jennifer Blanke fromSophie Bussmann-Kemdjo, Robert Crotti,the World Economic Forum, Giuseppe Iarossi fromMargareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Thierry Geiger, Satuthe World Bank, and Peter Ondiege and Zuzana Kauhanen, Kamal Kimaoui, Dana Marquardt, IreneBrixiova from the African Development Bank. TheMia, Pearl Samandari, and Katherine Tweedie.work was carried out under the general direction ofFrom the Africa Commission we thank WinnieShantayanan Devarajan, Chief Economist for the Petersen.Africa Region, and Marilou Uy, Sector Director,Finance and Private Sector Development, AfricaRegion, The World Bank; Robert Greenhill, ChiefBusiness Officer, World Economic Forum; andMthuli Ncube, Chief Economist and VicePresident, Dsir Vencatachellum, Director,Development Research Department, and LonceNdikumana, Director, Operational PoliciesDepartment, of the African Development Bank.Our gratitude goes to the distinguished authorsviiwho have shared with us their knowledge and expe-rience and contributed to this years Report.We are similarly grateful to all staff from ourinstitutions who have worked so hard to make thisjoint report possible and who have provided com-ments at different stages of the report preparation. Inparticular, we thank Abdul B. Kamara, PeterWalkenhorst, John Anyanwu, Albert Mafusire,Abebe Shimeles, Vinay D. Ancharaz, EmellyMutambatsere, Ahmed Moummi, Wolassa L.Kumo, Goerge Honde, Andrew Mwaba, NatsukoObayashi, Edith Laszlo, Baboucarr S. Sarr,Mamadou S. Bah, Sunitar Pitamber, Agnes Soucat,Ruth Charo, Alain Mingat (Consultant), SylvainDessy (External Reviewer), Mina Baliamoune(Consultant),

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