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Workstations .

Dec 26, 2015



Elwin Gibbs
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  • Slide 1
  • Workstations
  • Slide 2
  • Music workstation - Third generation music workstations 1 Although many music workstations have a keyboard, this is not always the case. In the 1990s, Yamaha, and then Roland, released a series of portable music workstations (starting with the Yamaha QY10). These are sometimes called walkstations.
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  • Music workstation - Third generation music workstations 1 Akai developed and refined the idea of the keyboard-less workstation, with the Music Production Center series of sampler workstations. The MPC breed of sampler freed the composer from the rigidity of step sequencing which was a limitation of earlier grooveboxes.
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  • Music workstation - Modern music workstations 1 Since the display is one of the most expensive components of these workstations, Roland and Yamaha initially chose to keep costs down by not using a touch screen or high-resolution display, but have added such in later models.
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  • Music workstation - Modern music workstations 1 Another path of music product development that started with the feature set of music workstations is to provide entirely software-based products, using virtual instruments. This is the concept of the digital audio workstation, and many of these products have emulated the multitrack recording metaphors of sequencers first developed in the music workstations.
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  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 Another goal was to bring the price for such a system down under a 'M'egapenny, that is, less than $10,000; this was not achieved until the late 1980s, although many workstations, particularly mid-range or high-end still cost anywhere from $15,000 to $100,000 and over throughout the early to mid-1990s.
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  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 64-bit workstations and servers supporting an address range far beyond 4GB have been available since the early 1990s, a technology just beginning to appear in the PC desktop and server market in the mid-2000s.
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  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 * Operating System: early workstations ran the Unix Operating System (OS) or a Unix- like variant or equivalent such as OpenVMS|VMS. The PC CPUs of the time had limitations in memory capacity and protected mode|memory access protection, making them unsuitable to run OSes of this sophistication, but this, too, began to change in the late 1980s as PCs with the 32-bit 80386 with integrated paged Memory management unit|MMUs became widely affordable.
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  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 * High-speed computer network|networking (10Mbit/s or better): 10Mbit/s network interfaces were commonly available for PCs by the early 1990s, although by that time workstations were pursuing even higher networking speeds, moving to 100Mbit/s, 1Gbit/s, and 10Gbit/s. However, economies of scale and the demand for high- speed networking in even non-technical areas has dramatically decreased the time it takes for newer networking technologies to reach commodity price points.
  • Slide 10
  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 * High performance/high capacity data storage: early workstations tended to use proprietary disk interfaces until the emergence of the SCSI standard in the mid-1980s
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  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 For this reason, almost no workstations are built by the customer themselves but rather purchased from a vendor such as Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics|SGI, Apple Inc|Apple, or Dell.
  • Slide 12
  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 Higher-end workstations still use more sophisticated CPUs such as the modern iterations of the Intel Xeon, AMD Opteron, IBM POWER microprocessors|IBM POWER, or Sun UltraSPARC CPUs, and typically run a variant of Unix, often allowing these machines to still focus on one area of expertise extensively
  • Slide 13
  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 Although both the consumer desktop and the workstation benefit from CPUs designed around the multicore concept (essentially, multiple processors on a die (integrated circuit)|die, the application of which IBM's POWER4 was a pioneer), modern workstations typically use multiple multicore CPUs, error correcting memory and much larger on-die caches than those found on consumer-level CPUs
  • Slide 14
  • Workstation - Decline of workstations 1 Some workstations are designed for use with only one specific application such as AutoCAD, Avid Xpress Studio HD, 3D Studio Max, etc. To ensure compatibility with the software, purchasers usually ask for a certificate from the software vendor. The certification process makes the workstation's price jump several notches but for professional purposes, reliability is more important than the initial purchase cost.
  • Slide 15
  • Classes of computers - Workstations 1 Workstations are computers that are intended to serve one user and may contain special hardware enhancements not found on a personal computer.
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  • Midi - Workstations and hardware sequencers 1 Music workstations combine controller keyboards with an internal sound generator and a sequencer
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  • Silicon Graphics - SGI Visual Workstations 1 Another attempt by SGI in the late 1990s to introduce its own family of Intel-based workstations running Windows NT or Red Hat Linux (see also SGI Visual Workstation) proved to be a financial disaster, and shook customer confidence in SGIs commitment to its own MIPS- based line.
  • Slide 18
  • Workstations 1 Workstations were the first segment of the computer market to present advanced accessories and videoconferencing|collaboration tools.
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  • Workstations 1 However by the late 2000s this difference disappeared, as workstations now use highly Commoditization|commoditized hardware dominated by large PC vendors, such as Dell and Hewlett-Packard|HP, selling Microsoft Windows or GNU/Linux systems running on x86-64 architecture such as Intel Xeon or AMD Opteron CPUs.
  • Slide 20
  • Workstations - Origins and development 1 Early examples of workstations were generally dedicated minicomputers; a system designed to support a number of users would instead be reserved exclusively for one person. A notable example was the PDP-8 from Digital Equipment Corporation, regarded to be the first commercial minicomputer.
  • Slide 21
  • Workstations - Origins and development 1 Other early workstations include the Terak 8510/a (1977), Three Rivers PERQ (1979) and the later Xerox Star (1981).
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  • Workstations - Workstation definition 1 A significant segment of the desktop market are computers expected to perform as workstations, but using PC operating systems and components
  • Slide 23
  • Total Worker Health - Sit-stand workstations 1 With the implementation of sit-stand workstations, individuals will be able to reduce sedentary time while at work, thereby improving health outcomes, and possibly improving work productivity.
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  • Total Worker Health - Sit-stand workstations 1 While the individual results of the studies varied, the researchers found that sit- stand workstations resulted in an overall improvement in health outcomes of workers who switched to these workstations, in addition to the reduced sitting time
  • Slide 25
  • Office Workstations Ltd 1 'Office Workstations Limited' ('OWL') was a United Kingdom|British software company based in Edinburgh.
  • Slide 26
  • Office Workstations Ltd - Ownership 1 OWL was bought for over 7m in 1989 by Matsushita Electric Industrial (MEI) of Japan and became 'Panasonic Office Workstations Ltd.'. They subsequently developed software to support next generation consumer electronics., including DVD technology, Digital television, next generation mobile communications, Internet delivery of multimedia and 3D car navigation systems.
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