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Wk4 – Marketing Politics and Political Advertising

May 26, 2015



  • 1. WK4 Marketing Politics and PoliticalAdvertising SGM004 PoliticalCommunicationsDr. Carolina MatosLecturer in Media and CommunicationsDepartment of SociologyCity University London

2. Readings for week 4 Required: Butler, P. & N, Collins (1999) 'A Conceptual framework forPolitical Marketing', in B. Newman (eds.) Handbook ofPolitical Marketing, London: Sage. Negrine, R. & Stayner, J. (2007) "Marketing Politics" in ThePolitical Communication Reader, London: Routledge,section 4 Scammell. M. (2003) Citizen Consumers: towards a newmarketing of politics? in John Corner and Dick Pels (eds.)Media and the Re-styling of Politics London: Sage, p.117-137 Additional: Franklin, B. (2004) Packaging Politics, 2nd Edn, Arnold Street, J. (1997) Politics and Popular Culture, London: PolityPress Thompson, J. (2000) Political Scandal, Polity. 3. Key issues The changing role of political parties in democracies Who has more power: political actors or the media? Modern politics, discourse and leadership Political marketing: what is it? Citizens consumers (Scammell, 2000) Modern politics, discourse and leadership Politics and popular culture The celebrity politician Political scandals Conclusions Seminar questions and activities Readings for week 5 4. The role of political parties in democracies Main function of political parties is to provide countries with leaders(Lees-Marshment, 2001) One of the key transformations of the political party has been thestrengthening of its leaders Wide range of literature on party politics discusses how partiesbehave( i.e. Catch all parties (Kirchheimer, 1966) Downs (1957) argued that political parties are rational actors thatchange their behaviour to capture the middle ground Politicians will compete with each other to gain more voters (i.e.reach out to younger publics). Thus they will start to incorporateentertainment formats to their political platform and/or politicalpersona 5. Tensions between the media (journalists) and thepolitical world (politicians) The growing power of television and other media technologies meansthat politicians compete with various leisure activities for the attentionof voters Commercial TV began to change the character of campaigns, with criticsstressing its contribution to the crisis of political parties (Mancini andSwanson,1996;13) Thomas E. Patterson (1993) points to tensions between the watchdogrole of the press and its constructive task of bringing candidates andvoters together (in Graber, 209) Relationship of competition and cooperation 6. Politicians use the media in their struggle forsymbolic power Thompson draws from Bourdieus discussion of culturalcapital the media become the primary means by which politicalleaders accumulate symbolic capital in the broader politicalfield. Through the management of visibility and thepresentation of self, political leaders use the media to build up astore of symbolic capital in the eyes of theelectorate.(Thompson, 2000, 105). Reputation is an aspect of symbolic capital - a politiciansgood reputation implies that he is trusted by voters) Shift in political scenario from politicians debating whatthey want to discussing how to implement what voters want 7. Politics and the logic of consumption (inScammell, 2003)Scammell (2003) argues that there is a mismatch betweenconfident consumers and insecure citizensEmpowerment of consumers, self-realization and personalvalues versus decline of citizenship rationalesconsumerism in the sense of a more productive, less collectivepublic policy choice is becoming the cause of the relationshipbetween citizens, representatives and governments in theelectoral politics of a number of nations (Scammell, 1995;Blumler and Kavanagh, 1999 in Bennett, 2003).* Attacks on political marketing seem to imply that a goldenage of rational political debate existed once 8. The Structural and Process Characteristics of PoliticalMarketing (in Newman et al, 1999)Structural Characteristics:A) The product Person/party/ideologyLoyaltyMutabilityB) The organization Resource BaseAmateurism and volunteersC) The market Regulations and restrictionsSocial affirmationThe counterconsumerProcess Characteristics:A) Value Defining Establishment of core valuesValue aggregationB) Value Developing Specification of choiceC) Value Delivering Office-policy dichotomyPeriodic market 9. A conceptual framework for political marketing (inNewman et al, 1999) Basis of the framework political marketing exhibits both structuralcharacteristics, such as the nature of the product, the organization and themarket, and process characteristics that define, develop and deliver value. Person/Party/Ideology Nominating candidates calls into question issuessuch as their competence and reasons, their past records and promises for thefuture; how much loyalty they command and their mutability in the post-purchasesetting. Strategies should attempt to brand policies and ideas The political organization Distinctive marketing characteristics ofpolitical parties include among others the resource base and the use ofamateurs and volunteers. Political parties have varied resource bases. I.e. In the US, the relatively liberal laws on campaign expenditure and thelower reliance on mass party membership compared to that in Europe havemade money the key resource. Negative Perception of Marketing - It is perceived as negative amonggrassroots level in many countries, and can be seen as unethical andtrivializing. As Smith and Saunders (1990) point out, politicians might focuson narrow short-term issues just because they are popular. 10. A conceptual framework for political marketing (inNewman et al, 1999)The political market the electorate constitutes the political market.Regulations and restrictions In the US, a candidate can buy any time onTV, in most markets the amount of time on TV is restricted.Social and Ideological Affirmation Elections are seen as a cornerstone ofcivil society. Only through an understanding of the electorate - its culture,values and expectations - will the marketer be able to avoid committing gaffes.The counterconsumer A particular group might be interested in preventinganother candidate from taking office.The Process Characteristic of Political Marketing the focus on deliveredvalue is important. Parties do stress core values that they have.We consider value-defining processes that enable the assessment of theorganization and its electorates concerns, value-developing processes thatenable the creation of positions and policies to meet those concerns, and value-deliveringprocesses that enable the transformation of policies into politicalaction. (64)* Value-Defining, Value-Developing and Value-Delivering Processes 11. Marketing Politics: definitions of concepts (in Negrineand Stayner, 2007)Lilleker and Negrine (2007, 129) argue that the term professionalization ismultifaceted and highly subjective, and not fully able to describe the complexnature of political communications. It can be used to identify any individualwho has a basic competence in news management techniques (Schlesinger andTumber, 1994: 14). Prefer the term specialization of tasks.The politics of marketing the Labour Party Wring (2007) discussed theold image of the Labour Party, and how it was perceived as old fashioned,extremist and beholden to minorities. There was widespread ignorance offocus groups, and selected findings were inappropriately used to analyse thepopularity of certain policies.Marketing research as double-edged sword: The theory and practice ofpolitical marketing raises important questions about the nature of modernelections.and democratic accountability. Although it is claimed that opinionresearch represents the views of a silent majority who might be ignored, thisambition conflicts with the primary motives of.private polling: the desire tocultivate support and win votes.Health of a democracy is called into question: marketing tends to focusupon.short-term customer wishes. 12. Marketing as a new concept in politics (in Negrine andStayner, 2007) Scammell (2007) highlights that there is no consensus over thedefinition of political marketing, underlining the use of otherterms, such as political management and promotional politics. Field is still in its infancy Political marketing claims to offer newof understanding modern politics. It wants to explain the behaviourof political actors, and shares with political science a desire tounderstand underlying processes. The appropriate use of marketing isseen as being able to have consequences for democratic practice andfor citizen engagement. (Scammell, 2007, 151) Political marketing is thus seen as a response to developments inmedia and communication technologies. The Chartered Institute ofMarketing defines marketing as: those activities performed byindividualswhether profit or non-profit, that enableandencourage exchange to take place(Scammell, 2000, 7). Marketing versus propaganda: The marketing concept is key tounderstanding political marketing. Without it, we are still talkingabout a modern form of propaganda. 13. Marketing versus propaganda* Scammell underlines how Nazi propagandists adapted Roman techniques forstimulating crowds to excitement. Hitler made use of marketing* Political marketing covers a multitude of activities, including advertising,public relations and any political activity concerned with image andpersuasion* Makes a distinction between marketing and propaganda: It is acommon misconception that marketing equals advertising or propaganda orimage or brand-building, even though all these will almost certainly form partof the marketing mix. (2000, 8)Differences - such as the fact that Nazism did not borrow marketingtechniques from the business community, and that their emphasis was onmanipulation and on forcing people to believe what they wanted, whilstpolitical marketing is more about attending to what people say they want.Political

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