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Wind Energy Toolkit

Sep 23, 2014

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Foreward

Wind Energy Toolkit Contents

Table of ContentsTable of Contents .........................................................................................................ii Table of Figures ........................................................................................................... iv Table of Tables .............................................................................................................v Foreword ..................................................................................................................... vi Overview ..................................................................................................................... 11. 2.2.1. 2.2. 2.3.

Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 2 Wind Energy in New York State ................................................................................................ 3Market Drivers ................................................................................................................................................... 3 Installed Utility-Scale Projects ........................................................................................................................... 4 Potential for Additional Projects ....................................................................................................................... 5

3.3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4.

Wind Energy Applications......................................................................................................... 6Small-Scale ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 Medium-Scale .................................................................................................................................................... 7 Utility-Scale ........................................................................................................................................................ 7 Additional Resources ......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.1. 4.2. 4.3.

Utility-Scale Wind ..................................................................................................................... 9Turbine Design ................................................................................................................................................... 9 Performance Specifications ............................................................................................................................. 10 Project Components ........................................................................................................................................ 13

5.5.1. 5.2.

Power Grid and Electricity Delivery ........................................................................................ 15Intermittency ................................................................................................................................................... 17 Additional Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 19

6.6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6.

Project Lifecycle ...................................................................................................................... 20Wind Resource Assessment and Site Selection ............................................................................................... 21 Permitting ........................................................................................................................................................ 22 Financing.......................................................................................................................................................... 22 Construction .................................................................................................................................................... 23 Operation and Decommissioning .................................................................................................................... 24 Additional Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 24

Impacts on the Local Community ................................................................................267.7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4.

Economic Impacts ................................................................................................................... 27Direct Economic Impacts ................................................................................................................................. 27 Property Tax: Exemptions and PILOT .............................................................................................................. 30 Indirect Economic Impacts .............................................................................................................................. 34 Economic Case Study ....................................................................................................................................... 35

8.8.1. 8.2. 8.3.

Socioeconomic Impacts .......................................................................................................... 37Property Value ................................................................................................................................................. 37 Public Health and Safety .................................................................................................................................. 38 Additional Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 43

Environmental Impacts ...............................................................................................459.9.1. 9.2. 9.3.

Bird and Bats: Impacts and Surveys ....................................................................................... 46Historical Bird Impacts ..................................................................................................................................... 46 Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring .......................................................................................................... 50 Bird and Bat Survey Techniques ...................................................................................................................... 52

ii

Wind Energy Toolkit Contents

9.4. 9.5. 9.6. 9.7.

Species Listings ................................................................................................................................................ 54 Habitat ............................................................................................................................................................. 54 Mitigation Strategies ....................................................................................................................................... 55 Additional Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 55

10.10.1. 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5. 10.6. 10.7.

Other Environmental Impacts ................................................................................................ 57Aesthetics and Viewshed Analysis ................................................................................................................... 57 Sound Emission ................................................................................................................................................ 61 Cultural and Archeological............................................................................................................................... 64 Telecommunications ....................................................................................................................................... 65 Site Condition and Construction Impacts ........................................................................................................ 66 Construction Impact Examples ........................................................................................................................ 72 Additional Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 78

Community Resources ................................................................................................8111.11.1. 11.2. 11.3. 11.4.

Comprehensive Planning ........................................................................................................ 82Inventory ......................................................................................................................................................... 82 Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................ 82 Goals and Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 83 An Action Strategy ........................................................................................................................................... 84

12.12.1. 12.2. 12.3. 12.4. 12.5.

Developer Site Identification ...................................................................