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Wildlife Health Management

May 11, 2015

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This presentation covers total wildlife health care and treatment of wildlife found in Central India. This slideshow also covers forensic activities carried out on wildlife.

  • 1.WILDLIFE HEALTH MANAGEMENTDr. A. D. Kholkute B.VSc. & A.H.

2. Treatment of Elephant wounds 3. Injury 4. Injection 5. First Aid Kit1]Tr. Iodine2] Hydrogen Peroxide3] Boric Powder4]Pot. Permanganate5]Detol6] Sprit7] Cotton Bundle8] Gauge9]Iodex 10] Anti Septic Tube 11] Tr. Iodine Spray 12] Analgesic Spray 13] Oil Turpentine 14] Betadin1] Syringes---------10 ml., 20 ml., 50 ml. 2] I |V set 3] Scissors , Straight & Curved 4] Irrigater 5] B.P.Handle & Blades 6] Hand Gloves 7] Thermometer 8] Artery Forceps 9] Adhesive Tape 6. Classification Of Diseases1, ContagiousFrom one animal to otherBacterial, Viral,Fungal & Parasitic 2, Non Contagious 3, Fungal Disease 4, Protozoan 5, ParasiticContagiousSpread through direct contacts, Vehicles, Human Air, Water, Contaminated Food & Water Common Grazing land 7. Out Breaks 8. Precautions & Duties* Inform immediately to higher Officer * Do not inform orally * Collect information about the suspectedDisease * Symptoms * Mortality, if any * Contact Sirpanch & tell him to report about the out break to Animal Husbandry Dept.in writing Immediately stop the grazing of domestic cattle's in Forest area to avoid contact 9. Foot and Mouth Disease Turmeric Powder Treatment 10. Turmeric Powder Treatment 11. Mr. Shripati (Vehicle Driver) 12. Determination of Age 13. Wild HerbivoresSpotted Deer, SamberA] Antler B] Size of Faecal matter. C] Wear & tare of TeethBLACK BUCK,BISON, OtherNumber of rings on horns Wear & tare of Teeth 14. Carnivores * Wear & tare of teeth * Section of Premolar, Molar teeth * Size of Scat * Size of animal * Pug Marks 15. Skull of Tiger 16. Lower Mandible of Tiger Canine Molar Incisor Premolar 17. AGE --- 8 - 12 Months 18. Estimation of the age of Tiger IncisorCanine 19. Pugmark of Tiger 20. Male PMLPMBFemale 21. PML -Below 5 cm. - Small Cat PML - 5-7 cm. - Leopard PML -7- 9.5-cm- Aged Leopard PML -7-10- cm - Tiger Cub PML - 9 17cm - Adult Tiger 22. Rearing of Orphaned cub to adulthood 23. Reared in captivity at Bor 24. Wild animal behavior Pugmark of a Tiger outside the cage 25. Hand Rearing of Hyena Cubs 26. Care of Capture Wild Animal Keep away from any disturbances Prefer Isolate place Don't disturb Reintroduce in the Forest as early as possible Veterinary care Put a cloth on the cage No Display Keep the animal in Forest to avoid disturbances 27. Care prior to Reintroduction Don't disturb the animal Reintroduce the animal where there is presence of the reintroduce animal. Don't reintroduce the wild animal in Evening hours. Area of reintroduction must be sufficient prey base. Selection of site must be having following facilities, Prey base Sufficient water Safe atmosphere & Shelter. Don't introduce ill , Injured,Weak animal. Take opinion of Veterinarian. 28. Re-Introduction 29. Dr. A D Kholkute 30. General Observations to bedone by forest personals* Pug Marks * Fecal Samples * Territory Markings * Kill * Different Calls 31. Different Calls of wild herbivores - Personal Experience 32. Wild AnimalLooking At Type of Call ChitalHuman Once Kruk Wild Carnivores Continuously Kruk, SamberHuman Bhyak CarnivoresContinuous Bhyak Monkeys CarnivoresKhek Khek Bison Human Shuuuuuuu CarnivoresShuuu shuuuuu Shue------- Chinkara Predator Bhyar Bhyar BhyarNilgayBhya Bhya Bhya 33. Alertness and Confidence 34. Keen Observation 35. Alertness Ears Erect 36. Alertness Ears Erect 37. Relax but Alert 38. Evaluation of Health Note down the following conditions : 39. Evaluation Report Format Name of person------------ Post---- Date of visit----- Compartment no.---General Health of Wild Life Very Good--------+ + + [Write 3 plus marks] Good-++ Weak- + Accordingly write down the general health of total wild herbivores in a flock. Write about the abnormalities observed if any. 40. Name of Vegetables In The Compartment Grasses---- Fruit trees TreesDistance of water source Near the compartment or away from compartment Presence of Mineral Depot [ Salt Lick ] There are certain areas in the Forest where Minerals are present. Wild animals use to go to that place & licks soil or stones 41. Distance from Village Grazing alone in groups or with Domestic Herbivores Out break of any disease in near by villages If yes, immediately report to Higher authority & also inform to near by Govt. Veterinary Doctor Names of Wild Carnivores present in the area 42. Write down on all above points & submit your report to higher authority for necessary action. With the help of your report monitoring of wild life heath will be possible. Compartments where heath of wild life is weak, more attention is to be given. The conditions in the healthy area are in the record & are with you. Compare it on following points. 1] Availability of Grasses, Fruit trees in both areas. In healthy & in weak wild life area.Note down the difference between two areas Take suitable measures accordingly. Introduce the new verity of trees & grasses in weak sector for better results. 2] Other factors like water holes, Common grazing of wild life & domestic animals & mineral depot must be consider on war footage. 3] make the weak wild life area like that of healthy area. This will definitely help in improving general health of wild life. 4] Collect faecal material from all the area. Get it examined. Collect only random samples & not of each wild life, The above measures will definitely improves the general health of wild life in all ranges. 43. Difference between Cervidae & Antelopes Deers [ Mrug Kul ] Only Males are having antlers & are solidShedding of antlers every yearPresence of Canine teeth[ Shwa dant ] In upper jawAntilopes Horns are present No shadding of horns Horns Two layers ---Outer & Inner [ Solid ] Females may have horns Annual ring on hornsevery yearPresence of lachrymal glands below eyes 44. Shedding of Antlers Shedding of Antlers Stage 1] 6 months to 18 years At the age of 6 month Bud or Pedicle develops[ Sir par uncha area 2 gagah par] Having velvet over it.[ Makhamalikhal ki parat.] 45. Difference between Horn and Antler 46. Gestation Period Lion110 days Tiger 104 days Leopard95-105 days Sloth Bear 7 months Hyena 84 days Bison 8-9 months Chinkara165 days Four Horned Antelope 240 250 days Black Buck165-180 days 47. Gestation Period Blue Bull[ Nil Gay] 8-9 months Swamp Deer [ Bara Singha] 6 months Samber8 months Spotted Deer180-210 days Barking Deer6 months Wild Boar 4 months 48. UREA POISONING Dr.A.D.KholkuteBVSC&AHNagpur 49. Artificial water holes 50. Artificial water holes 51. Artificial water holes 52. Urea Poisoning 53. Death of Bison due to Urea (Ammonia) Poisoning 54. Urea (Ammonia) Poisoning Common Fertilizer Easily available Available at subsidized rates to farmers 55. Urea Poisoning Chemical Formula CH4N2O Diamide of carbonic acid White crystalline powder&odorless Easily soluble in water Liberates ammonia odor 56. Urea Poisoning Poachers use urea to kill wild animals Intake increases blood urea & ammonia level Toxic dose-100gms in cattle, 10-25gms in goats Blood ammonia nitrogen level reaches 0.84mg-1.3mg% Rumen content-780mg/100ml 57. Urea Poisoning-Symptoms Ammonia gas & strong solution of ammonia act as CAUSTIC ALKALI Severe Colic Staggering gait Shivering Forced rapid breathing Marked Jugular Pulse Death after violent struggling & bellowing 58. Urea Poisoning-PM findings Mucous membrane of stomach & intestine -Hemorrhagic patches,Ulceration & Oedema Liver - Enlarged, Pale & Friable Skin -Blood spots[ Pin Point] Heart , Thymus & Lungs -General passive congestion &hyperemia. Kidney---Cloudy swelling &Necrotic foci 59. Field Test for detection of Urea in water 60. pH Paper Test 61. Urea Poisoning-Diagnosis & Lab testExamine stomach contentpH of water-7.0 & urea-7.2 pH paper test of ruminal fluid Chemical Test- Heat 5ml water sample, NH3gasliberates & liquid turns turbid-allow it to cool.Add 10ml of water, 1ml 10%NaOH & 0.5mlCuSO4- Reddish violet colour develops1ml sample+1mlHNO3- WHITE CRYST.ppt 62. Urea Poisoning-Treatment -1gallon 5%acetic acid(vinegar) CNS Depressant-Ergotamines,Barbiturates I/V Glucose or Cal borogluconate 63. Panchnama (FIR) Report and Examination of Carcass 64. Panchanama (FIR) Report & Examination of Carcass Attend the site as early as possible Isolate the area Draw map of the area Show directions i.e. East,West Use hand gloves Collect samples & doubtful material Write down every finding on a paper 65. Examination Of CarcassFirst examine the size of eyes A] Pupil looks rounded, Change in colour ofeyes, Diameter of eyes 15-16mm Time of death30 min to 2 hours B] Decrease in size of pupil, Diameter ofeyes becomes14-15mm Time of death------3 hrs 66. Examination Of Carcass C] pupil becomes smaller in size- wrinkles on eyes, Diameter of eyes11-12 mmTime of death----6 hrs D] Colour of eyes becomes ash, Pupil looks much smaller, Diameter of eyes6-7 mmTime of death11 hr E] Eyes go deep in the orbit, Eyes bluish Time of death30 hrs. 67. Stage one Flies & Eggs Numerous flies on carcass. Lays numerous white colour eggs on natural orifices Mouth Nose Eyes * *Anus & Vagina* * * Wounds * * Time of deathAppro. Just after death 68. Stage Two1. Presence of MaggotsAfter 8-12 hours2 Pupae After 4-5 days3 Complete Fly After 5 days 69. Post Mortem changes Colour of skin turns greenish -12 18 hrs Skin- Colourless with blue & greenish spots36-48 hrs Prolaps of uterus & anus -2-3 days Loss of hairs, nails & teeth -3-6 days All organs turns blackish & soft - 6-10 days Muscles detached from bones - 6-10 days Rupture of rumen - 6-10 days 70. WEST Site Map (Collection of Evidences) Liquor Dead cattleRope bottle Main electric supplyS Electric wire O Axe U N Poison T O cigarette BulletH R Mark Vomiteon tree T H BidiMatchbox BundleWounds Foot Water impression

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