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Jan 15, 2016
Whos that Monarch? In 1339, Mali appeared on a "Map of the World". In 1367, another map of the world showed a road leading from North Africa through the Atlas Mountains into the Western Sudan. In 1375 a third map of the world showed a richly attired monarch holding a large gold nugget in the area south of the Sahara. Also, trade between Egypt and Mali flourished.
A survey of the richest humans in history shows that generosity is what gets you remembered
Id never heard of Mansa Musa, but he sounds like a splendid chap. The Lion of Mali has been named this week as the richest human being in history: when he made a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, accompanied by 60,000 followers, he scattered so much wealth, was so unrelenting in his generosity, that it threw the local economies into turmoil. -Robert Colvile The Telegraph, Nov. 8th 2013
Mansa Musas Hajj In 1324 Musas pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, the holy city of Islam, makes him famous. He traveled with approximately 60,000 people and 200 camels all laden with gold, food, clothing, and other goods. Over 8 months of travel, his entourage saturated the gold market in the Middle East, and depressed the Egyptian economy. It was this pilgrimage that brought Musa international acclaim and made him an historical figure in European writing.
Mansa Musas InfluenceMansa Musa brought back with him an Arabic library, religious scholars, and most importantly the Muslim architect al-Sahili, who built the great mosques at Gao and Timbuktu and a royal palace. Al-Sahili's most famous work was the chamber at Niani. It is said that his style influenced architecture in the Sudan where, in the absence of stone, the beaten earth is often reinforced with wood which bristles out of the buildings.
Mansa Musa Creates a Golden Age Mansa Musa strengthened Islam and promoted education, trade, and commerce in Mali. The foundations were laid for Walata, Jenne, and Timbuktu becoming the cultural and commercial centers of the Western Sudan, eclipsing those of North Africa and producing Arabic-language black literature in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Diplomatic relations were established and ambassadors were exchanged between Mali and Morocco. Many Malinke students were sent to study in Morocco.
Mansa Musas Expansion Mali achieved the apex of its territorial expansion under Mansa Musa. The Mali Empire extended from the Atlantic coast in the west to Songhai far down the Niger bend to the east: from the salt mines of Taghaza in the north to the legendary gold mines of Wangara in the south.
Pull out your notes and using what you knowcreate two simple poems for any of the following:
Mansa Musa, Sundiata, Sunni Ali, Askia Muhammad, empire of Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Ibn Battuta, Al Bakri.EXAMPLE:Mansa Musa went to MeccaQuite a trip you knowCrossed the desert, stopped in CairoShowing off his dough $$$.
Review: Ancient EmpiresYou are the Griot!
More ExamplesFaro is the creator of all thingsThe power is in his handsBut Nyama animates all beings and plantsAnd even the desert sands.
In the beginning all was darkSuddenly there came a commotionVomiting up sun, moon, stars, and earthBumba set the universe in motion
Review Mission #1pair workList the 5 pillars of IslamHow did Mansa Musa follow the laws of the pillars?Who returned from Mecca with Mansa Musa?What does the fact that Mansa Musa built a mosque in Gao, an auditorium in Niani, and a palace in Timbuktu, indicate that he valued?Who was attracted to Sankore University?
SundiataLegendary Kings of West AfricaMansa MusaSunni Ali
Mansa Musa andAskia MuhammadMake acompare/contrastchart for these two legendarykings.
Warm UpThe Glory of TimbuktuWhat did Leo Africanus think of Timbuktu?What surprised him?What was his opinion of the people?
Putting it all TogetherThe Empires of Ghana, Mali, and SonghaiAnalyze the chart of these three empiresList 3 similaritiesList 3 differencesMake a prediction; After the destruction of Songhai what do you think became of the trade routes and wealth of Western Africa?
Make a connection;Show how one of these empires would fit the analogy of Empire Stew.
Sunni AliDuring his reign most of what was formerly Ghana and Mali were incorporated into the empire of SonghaiCaptured cities of Timbuktu and JenneRestored order to the Sudan:1. Divided Songhai into separate provinces each with its own governor.2. Developed new methods of farming3. Created a professional army
Sunni Ali- The End Embraced the Islamic faith of his trading partnersBy the time of his death in 1492 the Songhai empire had surpassed the greatness of Ghana and Mali and became the greatest empire in W. Africa
Askia MuhummadA general under Sunni Ali who overthrows Sunni Alis son to become ruler of SonghaiLeads Songhai to the pinnacle of its greatnessSuccessful largely because of his acceptance of Islam-Appointed Islamic leaders to the larger districts in empire-Applied Islamic law in place of Songhais traditional laws
Askia MuhammadDuring his reign the empire was stable and prosperous.He opened up the ranks of government service. Previously, status of leaders was based on birth. Under Askia men could attain leadership based on scholarship and intellect.
Economic Structure:What do people do to make a living?What is the currency or monetary unit?Taxation system and how it works?National treasury how is it used?
Student Examples: small amount of money that is shared equally in thisland.
They trade cola nuts and water in exchange for plastic (a very rare material used as jewelry), alcohol (to use as fuel for their bebas) and wine. The Kwini exacts the right of 5% from everything that comes into the country and 5% from everything that goes out.
Social StructureHow is the society set up?
What are the various classes in your society and what are their roles or what can they do?
Is any one class more important or powerful over the others? Explain.
Is there mobility between the classes?
Student Examples: Family: the mother is the head of the family, because she is the one who gives birth to children and makes the Nyota civilization continue on in existence. The elders are meant to be respected and looked after. The children should obey their parents. The children are the ones who talk to the stars for they are the youngest ones and therefore have the purest souls.
Female: The mother is supposed to be benevolent and generous and take care of the rest of the family
Ibn Battuta"He who does not travel will not know the value of men" (Moorish saying, cited in Bovill, The Golden Trade, p. 91)
Who was Al Bakri?A Spanish-Arab geographer and historian. He was born in Huelva, the son of the governor of the province. Al-Bakri spent his entire life in Spain, living in Cordova, and never traveled to the locations of which he wrote.
Al-Bakri wrote about Europe, North Africa, and the Saudi peninsula. His primary work is the Book of Highways and of Kingdoms. It was composed in 1068, based on literature and the reports of merchants and travellers who had been to the Kingdom of Ghana. His works are noted for the relative objectiveness with which they are presented. For each area, he describes the people, their customs, as well as the geography, climate, and main cities. He also presents various anecdotes (stories) about each area. Unfortunately, parts of his main work have been lost.
Who was Ibn Batutta?Ibn Battuta, was born in Tangier, Morocco, in 1304 C.E. He left Tangier in 1325, when he was twenty one years of age. His travels lasted for about thirty years, and included visiting North Africa, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Iran and southern Arabia. He sailed to Somalia and Tanzania, then back to the Persian Gulf. Ibn Battuta was the only medieval traveller who is known to have visited the lands of every Muslim ruler of his time. He also travelled in Ceylon (present Sri Lanka), China and Byzantium and South Russia. The mere extent of his travels is estimated at no less than 75,000 miles, a figure which is not likely to have been surpassed before the age of steam.
At about the age of 50 Battuta returned to Morocco and then walked across the Sahara to Mali, where he spent time in the Kingdom of Mali.
Map of Ibn Battutas Travels
Leo Africanus is a nickname, assigned to Leo by his Italian peers when he was already in his 30s. At birth, Leo had a distinctly more Muslim name: Al Hassan Ibn Muhammad Al Wazzan Leo made two trips to the Sudan and Timbuktu: One in early 1510 and one in 1513. He was 16 years old on his first trip, a companion to his uncle, sent as ambassador to the Sudan. During his two trips, Leo visited several kingdoms.
" I visited 15 kingdoms in the land of the blacks, and there are three times as many which I have not seen. Born in Spain, grew up in Morrocco.
How did he get the nickname?Educated at Fs, in Morocco, Leo Africanus travelled widely as a young man on commercial and diplomatic missions through North Africa. Returning from a voyage to Egypt, while at sea in the Mediterranean, he was captured by Christian pirates and, because he revealed extraordinary intelligence, was presented as a gift to Pope Leo X.
Impressed with his slaves learning, the pontiff freed him after a year and, having persuaded him to profess Christianity, stood sponsor at his baptism in 1520. As Giovanni Leone (John Leo), the new convert enjoyed favour in scholarly Roman society, learned Latin and Italian, and taught Arabic.
Around 1526 he completed his greatest work, Descrittione dellAfric