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AHS English Essentials Email Etiquette (from Purdue Owl)............................3 Formatting an MLA Document................................4 Making a Formal Outline...................................5 Making MLA 8 Works Cited Entries..........................6 MLA 8 th Edition: In-Text Citations........................11 Making MLA Parenthetical Citations.......................12 What to Put in the Parenthetical........................12 Paraphrased Material (When It’s “In Your Own Words”)....12 Short Quotations (fewer than 4 lines)...................13 Quoting Dialogue........................................14 Long Quotations.........................................15 Adding or Changing Words................................16 Removing Text...........................................16 Quick Guide: Citing from a Book in MLA 8.................17 Quick Guide: Citing from a Website in MLA 8..............18 Citation Checklists......................................19 Works Cited (Sample 1)...................................20 Works Cited (Sample 2)...................................21 Academic Honesty Contract................................22 Specific Violations.....................................22 Consequences for Cheating and Plagiarism................23 How to Join a Class on TURNITIN.COM......................24 How to Submit a Paper on TURNITIN.COM....................25 Punctuation Review.......................................26 Steps for Writing an Expository Essay....................28 Transition Words and Phrases.............................30 Tone and Mood Words......................................31 Google Search Tips.......................................32 1
77€¦  · Web viewEmail Etiquette (from Purdue Owl)3. Formatting an MLA Document4. Making a Formal Outline5. Making MLA 8 Works Cited Entries6. MLA 8th

Jan 23, 2020



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AHS English Essentials

Email Etiquette (from Purdue Owl)3Formatting an MLA Document4Making a Formal Outline5Making MLA 8 Works Cited Entries6MLA 8th Edition: In-Text Citations11Making MLA Parenthetical Citations12What to Put in the Parenthetical12Paraphrased Material (When It’s “In Your Own Words”)12Short Quotations (fewer than 4 lines)13Quoting Dialogue14Long Quotations15Adding or Changing Words16Removing Text16Quick Guide: Citing from a Book in MLA 817Quick Guide: Citing from a Website in MLA 818Citation Checklists19Works Cited (Sample 1)20Works Cited (Sample 2)21Academic Honesty Contract22Specific Violations22Consequences for Cheating and Plagiarism23How to Join a Class on TURNITIN.COM24How to Submit a Paper on TURNITIN.COM25Punctuation Review26Steps for Writing an Expository Essay28Transition Words and Phrases30Tone and Mood Words31Google Search Tips32Research Terms33MLA Web Evaluation35Basic Speaking and Reading Guidelines36Citation Styles37MLA vs. APA38Converting MLA to APA: Formatting39Title Page39Header39Abstract39Headings39Converting MLA to APA: In-Text Citation40Sample APA In-Text Citations41APA SHORT QUOTATIONS41APA LONG QUOTATIONS41APA PARAPHRASING41APA: AS CITED IN…41Converting MLA Works Cited to APA References42Formatting Basics42Author Names42Date of Publication42Title of Source42Title of Container42Volume and Issue Number42Page Range42Location42APA References Examples43APA Web Evaluations45

Email Etiquette (from Purdue Owl)

There are a few important points to remember when composing an email, particularly when the email's recipient is a superior [teacher] and/or someone who does not know you.

· Include a meaningful subject line; this helps clarify what your message is about (and helps the recipient know what priority to assign your email).

· Open your email with a formal greeting and a colon. For example, Dear Dr. Jones: or Good evening, Ms. Smith:

· Use standard spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Do not use text abbreviations (like u instead of you.) ALSO, THERE'S NOTHING WORSE THAN AN EMAIL SCREAMING IN ALL CAPS.

· Write clear, short paragraphs, and be direct and to the point. Professionals and academics alike see their email accounts as business. Don't write unnecessarily long emails or otherwise waste the recipient's time.

· Be friendly and cordial, but don't try to joke around. (Jokes and witty remarks often are inappropriate or will simply come off wrong in an email situation, where it is hard to intuit the writer’s tone.)

· Tone is very important! Make sure the tone of your email is polite.

· Just like a written letter, be sure your closing is also formal like: Sincerely, OR Regards, OR Thank you,


Subject: Chris Bacon October 3rd Absence

Dear Mrs. McGuire:

I will not be in class today due to a doctor’s appointment. At your earliest convenience, please let me know what I missed. Please also let me know if I need to pick up any handouts before class tomorrow. Thank you for your time.


Chris P. Bacon

Formatting an MLA Document

1. 1-inch margins

1. Go to “Layout” on the toolbar on the top

2. Go to “Margins” on the left-hand side of the toolbar

3. Click “Normal” –1 inch all the way around the paper

2. Double-spacing

1. Right click somewhere on the document, and click “Paragraph”

2. Under “Spacing,” make sure both the “before” and “after” box are at 0 pt.

3. To the right of those boxes one menu says “Line Spacing.” Select “Double.”

4. Check the box titled “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.”

5. Near the bottom of the paragraph menu, select “Set as Default.” Make sure to click the follow up box that says “All documents based on this template.”

3. Header with last name and page number in upper right-hand corner

1. Click “Insert” on the top-left of the toolbar

2. Click “Page Number” on the top-right toolbar

3. Click “Top of Page” and “Plain Number 3” (the page number in the top, right-hand corner)

4. Type your last name, then add one space after your last name, so there will be a space between your last name and the page number.

5. Highlight and make the font of your heading Times New Roman, size 12.

4. MLA heading

Your first and last nameJohn Smith

Your instructorMr. Jones

Your class (include class period)English 10 (P2)

The due date (do not abbreviate month)12 September 2017

5. You are now ready to type your paper. Use size 12, Times New Roman font.

Note: If you work on your paper both at school and at home, you must always check your settings. Your document’s settings will change to the computer’s “style settings” every time you load your document on a different computer.

Making a Formal Outline

An outline is a general plan of the material to be presented in a speech or paper; the outline shows the purpose and order of various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationships among the various parts.

Sometimes, teachers will ask for a “topic outline.” Topic outlines use single words or brief phrases, rather than complete sentences. The sample below is a “sentence outline.”

All outlines must begin with a thesis statement; it must be a grammatically correct sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the purpose, point of view, or position the writer is taking toward the subject or the information he or she intends to convey.

Example Outline

Thesis: Here, type out the thesis statement.

I. This outline is in “sentence form” and is called a “sentence outline.”

A. Each subdivision of the outline must be a complete sentence.

B. Each subdivision may have only one sentence in it.

II. Each Roman numeral should be a claim that supports the thesis (some call these sentences “topic sentences” or “main ideas”).

A. Capital letters are for the evidence or logical reasoning that support the claim.

1. Arabic numerals are for sub-points supporting the ideas above.

2. Often, it is here with the Arabic numerals where one places analysis (explanation) of how the evidence or reasoning supports the claim.

a. Lower-case letters are for sub-points under the numbers, if necessary.

b. If the writer needs even more sub-points, under the lower-case letters, he or she should use small Roman numerals (i. ii. iii. iv. v.)

B. A sub-point needs to relate to the idea it appears underneath!

1. This means capital letters are a subdivision related to the roman numerals.

2. Thus, it follows that Arabic numerals refer to the idea stated after the capital letter.

III. The introduction and conclusion are not typically part of the outline.

A. Even so, one may want to ask one’s teacher whether to include them.

B. If the instructor does want them included, be sure to ask how to do so.

IV. No sub-point can stand alone!

A. Every A must have a B.

B. Every 1 must have a 2.

C. One does not need to have a C or a 3, but one may.

Making MLA 8 Works Cited Entries

To cite from any type of source, MLA asks for certain information in a certain order.

Often, people citing sources may have to skip an element that is not part of the source and therefore is nowhere to be found.

No matter what the final element is, writers must end each entry with a period.

Source stands on its own

Source is found within a container

1. Author.

2. Title of source.

3. Other contributors,

4. Publisher,

5. Publication date,

6. Location.

1. Author.

2. Title of source.

3. Title of container,

4. Other contributors,

5. Publisher,

6. Publication date,

7. Location.

Source has a version and a number

Source was found through a database

1. Author.

2. Title of source.

3. Title of container,

4. Other contributors,

5. Version,

6. Number,

7. Publisher,

8. Publication date,

9. Location.

1. Author.

2. Title of source.

3. Title of container,

4. Other contributors,

5. Version,

6. Number,

7. Publisher,

8. Publication date,

9. Location.

10. Second container,

11. Location.

1. Author: Last name, comma, rest of the name, period.

Hain, Dennis A. Society and Television. Penguin, 2005.

2. Title of Source: Some sources should go in italics; others use quotation marks.

Use Italics for book titles, websites, movies, albums, and other full-length sources.

Hain, Dennis A. Society and Television. HarperCollins, 2005.

Use “quotation marks” for short stories, poems, songs, and articles in periodicals (journal, magazine, newspaper).

Nantas, Horticia. “Radio.” Short Stack: The Stories of Today, edited by Jim

Steele, The Perseus Book Group, 2013, pp. 192-217.

3. Title of Container:

“Containers” are whatever bigger entity the source itself is found inside/within. For example, to cite a short story that appears in a textbook, the individual story is the source, while whatever it is found within (the textbook) is the container. The title of the container is italicized and followed by a comma.

In this example, the container is a book, which is a compilation of “short stories.”

Nantas, Horticia. “Radio.” Short Stack: The Stories of Today, edited by Jim

Steele, Umbrella Press, 2013, pp. 192-217.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of “episodes.”

“The Underlings.” You Name It, created by Allison Raykin and Melissa Sanchez,

performance by Don Charters, season 3, episode 4, Atlantas Productions and MGM Studios, 2016.

The container may also be a website, which could contain “articles,” “blog posts,” or “pages.”

Lithgow, Robert. “Memes and Memories: A New Take.” The Internet Is Forever,

16 Sept. 2011,


In some cases, a container might be within an even larger container! Perhaps one read a short story out of a book of short stories on Google Books or watched an episode out of television series accessed through Netflix. One might have found an article within the electronic version of a journal accessed through JSTOR.

“The Underlings.” You Name It, created by Allison Raykin and Melissa Sanchez,

performance by Don Charters, season 3, episode 4, Atlantis

Productions/MGM Studios, 2016. Netflix,


Inginhauer, Anthony. “Basketball and Teen Hangouts.” Adolescence Journal, vol.

42, no. 2, 1999, pp. 13-40. Retrieved from SIRS, doi:10.258/F41638L7355.

Steps 4, 5, and 6 are relatively rare; if they do not apply to the source, simply skip them!

4. Other Contributors:

Sometimes, other people helped create the source besides the author, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. Would including them help someone figure out which exact source was used? If so, add these people and what they did to the citation. Note: Terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc., are NOT abbreviated.

Piaget, Janice. Learning with No Boundaries: Education in Modern Times.

Edited by Otis Redding, Broadview Books, 1977.

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. Annotated and with an introduction by Sylvia

Makanowa, Random House, Inc., 2002.

5. Version: Include the edition or version of a work, if that’s given.

The Bible. The New American Bible, United States Conference of Catholic

Bishops, 2002.

Jardheleh, Siddiq, and Olivia Pawnhee. Stylistics for the Beginner.

5th ed., Nelnet, 1998.

6. Number: If a source is numbered, as with books published in many volumes or journals that have volume and issue numbers, add the number to the citation. Note: MLA 8 now says to include written indicators like “vol.” or “no.” or “episode.”

Reisch, Jackson. “Animals in the Clouds: Imaginations and Visions.” Creativity and the Arts: The World-Wide Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, 2012,

“The Underlings.” You Name It, created by Allison Raykin and Melissa Sanchez,

performance by Don Charters, season 3, episode 4, Atlantis

Productions/MGM Studios, 2016.

The U. S. Department of Labor. Empleo y Capacitación. Translated by James A. Smith, vol. 3, Office of the Inspector General, 1991.

The writer may only skip steps 7 and 8 if he or she cannot find a publisher and/or a publication date after a good-faith effort.

7. Publisher: Publishers finance/enable the publication and distribution of sources. It is possible for a source to have more than one publisher, and one can show this by listing them with slashes between them (/).

Note: Do not include a publisher for periodicals or for websites that make works available but do not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, Tumblr, Twitter, or JSTOR). Do not include a publisher if it’s just the author’s name again, the editor’s name again, or the website’s name again.

Ophenhammer, Michael. Fullness. 1914. Figge Museum, Davenport, Iowa. Art Online

for All,

The Role of a Preventive Cardiologist in Managing the Diabetic Patient System. American College of Cardiology, 2018.

“The Underlings.” You Name It, created by Allison Raykin and Melissa Sanchez,

performance by Don Charters, season 3, episode 4, Atlantis Productions/MGM Studios, 2016.

8: Publication Date: Now, one must add the date of publication; abbreviate months. Note: The same source may have been published on more than one date; if so, use the date that is most relevant to the source used. For example, The Catcher in the Rye was published in 1951, but if the book used was published in 1991, use that later date. Often, online sources have an “updated” or “reviewed” date. Use that later date.

Salinger, J.D.. The Catcher in the Rye. Little, Brown, 1991.

“Timidity.” Up North, created by Ainsley Kappernaugh, performance by Adam

Levine, season 2, episode 8, Turner Broadcasting Network, 18 Jan. 1996.

“Chemistry for Kids.” Youtube, uploaded by Fun Science Team, 30 Feb. 2012,

9: Location: Be as specific as possible about location! Note: Location means where to find the source material; it is NOT the city of publication!

Include page numbers where possible, like for an essay or short story in a book or for an article in a magazine or a journal.

McFinnes, Ralph. “Under the Grey Sun.” Growing Up Green and Orange, Random House, 2000, pp. 84-101.

If it’s a work found online, add the url (or doi).

Wheeler, Amaya. " Novel Drug Reverses Anticoagulation in Emergencies." Cardiovascular Health, vol. 2, no. 13, 1996, pp. 442-477,

When citing a physical object experienced firsthand, identify the place of location.

Ophenhammer, Michael. Fullness. 1914. Figge Museum, Davenport, Iowa.

Optional Elements

Date of original publication: If a source was published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Day-Lewis, Karrol. Sharp Skies. 1964. Athabasca Press, 2015.

City of publication: MLA 8 does NOT make you do this. However, MLA 8 says that pre-1900 works were tied to whatever city they were published in, so some may wish to put in the city name rather than the publisher for anything published pre-1900.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Essays: Second Series. Boston, 1844.

Date of access: When citing online sources, some recommend including the date of access (the date one looked at the material online); this is done because online sources may change or move. However, this element is OPTIONAL, which means, feel free to leave it out.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, Accessed 4 May 2009.

Recommended Optional Elements

URLs: Place URLs after the date published.

DOIs: A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. This way, the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If a source has a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

MLA 8th Edition: In-Text Citations

An in-text citation (or parenthetical citation) is the key word (usually the author’s name) and the page number placed in parenthesis. There is no comma between them.

If the author’s name appears in a signal phrase, it does not then go in the parenthetical. The first example below uses a signal phrase, so the parenthetical reads (7) instead of (Jones 7).

No author? Use the title of the article or story as the “key word.”

Example One: According to David I. Jones, the cow is a gentle animal, notable for “her patience, affability, and usefulness to mankind” (7).

Example Two: The cow is a figure of “patience, affability, and usefulness to mankind” (Jones 7).

Work Cited

Jones, David I. Domesticated Friends. Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Note: If the example above had no author, the parenthetical reference would look like this: (Culture 9). Notice how the key word is also italicized. One does this because one must match the format of the key word to its format in its entry on the Works Cited page, and Culture is italicized in the Works Cited entry.

Final Thoughts:

Once students become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, they will be able to create documentation for any type of source.

While the MLA handbook and Purdue OWL still include helpful examples students may use as guidelines, they will not need to consult these sources every time they need to figure out how to cite a source they have never used before!

So long as one has included each element in the proper order and used consistent punctuation, one should be able to create a Work(s) Cited entry for any source!

Making MLA Parenthetical Citations

When writers take ideas and/or words from any source, they must indicate their use of that source to their readers and/or listeners. Therefore, writers must include a citation after each idea or direct quotation taken from a source.

What to Put in the Parenthetical

· Give the author’s last name and the page number.

· The in-text citations (also called parenthetical notations) will look like this: (Hawthorne 54-5).

· If there is no author, use the first item that does appear in the Works Cited entry, and format it in the same way it is in the Works Cited (it will probably either have quotation marks around it or it will be italicized). For example, you may put the title of an article if there is no author listed.

· If more than one of the Works Cited entries starts with the same word, then choose what to put in the parenthetical by finding the first item of each entry that is different from the other(s). For example, if there are two works by the same author, you would use the title of the works rather than the author’s last name.

· If there is no page number, you do not need to put anything after the author name (or title).

Paraphrased Material (When It’s “In Your Own Words”)

· If a writer talks about something that happened the novel, but he or she is putting it in his or her own words and not using a direct quotation from the book, the writer still must cite the page number.

· However, the writer should not put his or her paraphrasing (something that’s in his or her own words) in quotation marks!

· Example: Pearl’s parents decide to run away when they are in the forest (Hawthorne 126).

Short Quotations (fewer than 4 lines)

· Place quotation marks around the passage and then provide the author and specific page citation in the text.

· Punctuation: Periods, commas, and semicolons are removed from the very end of quoted material. The writer then ends the sentence by placing a period AFTER the parenthetical citation.

· Question marks and exclamation points that come at the end of the quoted material the writer is using should remain within the quotation marks.

· Example 1 (ending the sentence after the parenthetical): Margot realizes her husband has changed after his hunting success: “From the far corner of the seat Margaret Macomber looked at the two of them. There was no change in Wilson. She saw Wilson as she had seen him the day before when she had first realized what his great talent was. But she saw the change in Francis Macomber now” (Hemingway 17).

· Example 2 (continuing on after the parenthetical): The narrator says, “From the far corner of the seat Margaret Macomber looked at the two of them. There was no change in Wilson. She saw Wilson as she had seen him the day before when she had first realized what his great talent was. But she saw the change in Francis Macomber now” (Hemingway 17), and this marks a turning point for Margot.

· Example 3 (leaving in an exclamation mark that was in the text): Within the pages of Hawthorne’s novel, the message “‘Be true! Be true! Be true!’” (184) is not only stated outright, but flows throughout the entire text.

· Example 4 (asking a question in one’s own writer’s voice): Is it possible that when Margot “saw the change in Francis Macomber” (Hemingway 17), it frightened her?

Quoting Dialogue

· One shows the reader one is quoting dialogue by using ‘single quotation marks’ around the spoken words.

· The “normal quotation marks” around the very outside edges of a direct quotation show that the writer is quoting the source. They look like this: “____”

· ‘Single marks’ show that a character said whatever is inside of them. They look like this: ‘___’

· When combined, these marks look like this: “‘___’”

· Example 1: The youngest woman in the crowd at the scaffold is not nearly so harsh as the older women. She seems to feel sorry for Hester when she says, “‘Ah, but, […] let her cover the mark as she will, the pang of it will be always in her heart’” (Hawthorne 36). Note: the bracketed ellipsis […] show that the essay writer removed part of the text.

· Example 2: The first time Dimmesdale goes to the scaffold, he cannot overcome his fear of confession, and he refuses to acknowledge his sin when Pearl asks him if he will stand on the scaffold at noon the next day. The text reads, “‘Nay; not so, my little Pearl!’ answered the minister; for, with the new energy of the moment, all the dread of public exposure, that had so long been the anguish of his life, had returned upon him; and he was already trembling at the conjunction in which–with a strange joy, nevertheless–he now found himself. ‘Not so, my child. I shall, indeed, stand with thy mother and thee one other day, but not to-morrow!’” (Hawthorne 92).

Long Quotations

If a passage is 4+ lines long when typed, one must create a block quote:

· double-space

· start on a new line (hit “enter” to start the block quote)

· indent the entire quote one inch from the left margin (press “tab” twice)

· leave out the quotation marks you normally put around the outside of a quote (because block quotes already make clear that one is quoting directly)

· place the parenthetical after the closing punctuation mark (this is opposite what we do with a short quote)

· if someone in the text is speaking/talking, then use normal quotation marks (rather than the single marks used to quote dialogue when the quotation is short)

Block Quote Example

There are many ways to view Pearl, Hester’s child. She may be Hester’s ticket to salvation, and Hester often does think of her as her “only treasure” (Hawthorne 78); however, she also begins to worry that the child may be evil because Pearl is the result of her sinful actions:

God, as a direct consequence of the sin which man [. . .] punished, had given her a lovely child, whose place was on that same dishonored bosom, to connect her parent for ever with the race and descent of mortals, and to be finally a blessed soul in heaven! Yet these thoughts affected Hester Prynne less with hope than apprehension. She knew that her deed had been evil; she could have no faith, therefore, that its result would be for good. (Hawthorne 78)

These thoughts demonstrate both sides of Pearl’s existence, the positive and the negative. She is both a gift and a burden.

Adding or Changing Words

· If it is necessary to add some words (to make something more clear), the writer must put the added words in brackets.

· In the example below, the writer has replaced “it” with [the sunshine]. Why would one do this? Because otherwise, “it” would be unclear.

· Notice that the writer removes the period that went after “shade,” and then ends the sentence with a period after the parenthetical. With short quotes, writers should always remove that final period and place it after the parenthetical.


Pearl seems to be a figure of purity and hope in the forest chapters. The narrator says, “to judge from the bright expression that was dancing on Pearl’s features, her mother could have fancied that the child had absorbed [the sunlight] into herself, and would give it forth again, with a gleam about her path, as they should plunge into some gloomier shade” (Hawthorne 121).

Removing Text

· To remove unnecessary words or even whole sentences from the middle or end (but not the start!) of a quotation, use an ellipsis, and hit the space bar between each of the three dots.

· To make clear that you put the ellipsis there and not the writer of the original text, you may choose to use brackets, like this: [. . .]

· You do not need to use an ellipsis at the start of a quote simply because you are starting somewhere other than the beginning of the sentence. You are allowed to start a quotation ANYWHERE.


Dimmesdale calls to Hester to help him climb the scaffold. He seems to need her strength to support him in completing the difficult task of confessing his sin. He says to her, “‘Hester Prynne, [ . . . ] come hither now, and twine thy strength about me! Thy strength, Hester; but let it be guided by the will which God hath granted me!’” (159).

Quick Guide: Citing from a Book in MLA 8

1. Author.

· Start with the author’s name, like this: Shakespeare, William.

· If there is no author given, SKIP it.

2. Title of source.

· What is the title of the specific story, book, webpage, article, or poem you are citing?

· Is it a full-length source (books, websites, movies, albums)? Use Italics.

· Is it shorter (magazine, song, short story, or poem)? Use “Quotation Marks.”

3. Title of container,

· Is this thing you are citing actually a smaller thing inside a bigger thing, like an episode of a TV series or a short story inside a textbook? If so, you need to add the title of that container.

· The container should be italicized or put in quotation marks according to the normal rules.

4. Other contributors,

· Is there an editor, illustrator, translator, or introduction writer involved in making this book? It will usually say so on the cover or the inside title page.

· If yes, then put something like this:

Edited by so-and-so

With an introduction by what’s-his-name.

· If there are no other contributors, SKIP this step.

5. Version,

· On the title page, it might say this is a certain “edition” or a certain “version.” If not, skip this step.

· If it says “version” or “edition” somewhere the book, then write something like this: Revised Standard Edition, or: 5th edition.

6. Number,

· Sometimes, a book, journal, television show, or magazine is part of a numbered sequence. Encyclopedias have multiple volumes, and journals have volume and issue numbers. If this isn’t an issue, SKIP this step.

· If there is a number like that, then include something like this: season 2, episode 21; or: vol. 4, no. 8.

7. Publisher,

· In normal font, now list the name of the publisher. This is often found on the side of the book, the back of the book, and the title page.

· If the writer uses a website to make the citation for him or her, THIS IS HOW TEACHERS CATCH THAT. The writer needs to have the CORRECT publisher and publication date listed!

8. Publication date,

· List when THE EXACT EDITION OF THE BOOK CONSULTED was published, not when it was first published or when the introduction was published or whatever other dates or years one might find.

9. Location.

· This is where one would put the URL for a website; for books, one sometimes gives a page range (like pp. 8-30), but only when one is citing something smaller inside a larger container, like The Crucible (a play) being inside an English textbook. Otherwise, just skip this step and put a period after the publication date already listed in step 8.

Quick Guide: Citing from a Website in MLA 8

· Author (if available) + PERIOD

Smith, John.

· Article name (use quotation marks) + PERIOD

“A Name for an Article.”

· Title of the website (use italics) + COMMA

Random Title of Website,


· Publisher + COMMA

Nelnet Publishing,

· Date last revised, or posted/published, or the copyright year + COMMA

28 Aug. 2015,


· The URL (start with the www.) + PERIOD

· When you accessed it + PERIOD

Accessed 2 Sept. 2016.

Abbreviations for the Months





Citation Checklists


· Entries are alphabetized; student uses hanging indents (indent text on any line after the first line of an entry) rather than bullet points or a numbered list.

· Works Cited (the title at the top) is centered and spelled/capitalized correctly.

· No extra space between entries or under title.


· Author = Last, First. (use plain font)

· Shorter sources, like webpages or article titles = “Quotation Marks”

· Books & other full-length sources, like website titles = Italics

· Capitalizes titles correctly

· Publisher = plain font (skip if missing; also skip if it’s the same as the source or container)

· Use European date format, and abbreviate the months (skip if missing)

· Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

· For web sources, include the URL after the date published/updated (hyperlink optional)

· Database? before the URL, change the punctuation after the publication date to a period, and then include this: Retrieved from Database Name,

· Use periods after the author, after the source name, and at the very end. All other pieces of info need commas between them. (Unless you are adding another container, like in the case in bold above.)

In-Text Citation:

· Is this a speech? Then use VERBAL in-text citation!

· Use signal phrases instead of parentheticals for all facts/quotes you intend to speak aloud. Simply state something like this: “According to __________...”

· Ex: According to an article published in The Atlantic this month, blah blah.

· Ex: 87% of do dee dos, do blah blah, according to psychologist Jon Ash.

· When speaking, you must also say “quote” / “end quote” before and after direct word-for-word quotations from sources.

· Is this written, like in an essay or on a PowerPoint? Then use parenthetical citations!

· Parenthetical (in-text) citation must appear after EVERY fact, idea, or quote taken from a source, whether paraphrased or quoted directly/word-for-word.

· Choose the correct major element (Pick the first major (and non-repeated) element in the Works Cited entry; usually author’s last name or the title). Format titles correctly!

· Include page number or line number (for songs, Shakespeare, and poetry), if available; between the major element and the page number, there is only a space—nothing else.


Works Cited (Sample 1)

“Climate Change Explained.” Youtube, uploaded by The Daily Conversation, 2 Dec. 2015,

“Climate Change Indicators in the United States.” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Apr. 2010, Accessed 8 May 2016.

@ClimateChangeNewsCA. “The amount of #snow covering #Earth is well above normal.” Twitter, 8 May 2017, 2:29 p.m.,

Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." The New York Times, 22 May 2007, Accessed 12 May 2016.

“Global Warming Science.” Union of Concerned Scientists, Accessed 8 May 2016.

Gowdy, John and Lisa Federson. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27-36.

An Inconvenient Truth. Directed by Davis Guggenheim, performances by Al Gore and Billy West, Paramount, 2006.

Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. Springer, 2005.

Regas, Diane, James Riley, and Tiffany Greer. “Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.” Environmental Defense Fund, 1 June 2016, Accessed 19 July 2016.

Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times, 17 May 2007, Accessed 29 July 2016.

Works Cited (Sample 2)

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. EBSCO Host, doi:10.1002/tox.20155.

“A-Plus Schools for B Students: National Universities.” US News and World Report: Higher Education, US News and World Report L.P., 2016, Accessed 29 Aug. 2016.

Gallagher, Noel K. “Five Maine Colleges Make Princeton Review Top-Schools List.” Portland Press Herald, Maine Today Media, 8 Oct. 2013, Accessed 30 Aug. 2016.

“Majors, Minors, and Programs.” University of Southern Maine, 2016, Accessed 28 Aug. 2016.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,

"University of Southern Maine: Campus Life." BigFuture, The College Board, 2016, Accessed 28 Aug. 2016.

Academic Honesty Contract

Academic honesty and integrity are fundamental to student academic and personal development. Students at AHS are expected to exhibit and uphold academic integrity, striving for honest and ethical behavior as it relates to their scholastic work. Students are expected to do their own schoolwork; they may not receive or give unauthorized assistance in the preparation of any work required for submission for course credit, including examinations, essays, notes, reports, projects, or other homework. Students must give credit to sources consulted (through proper documentation and citation).

Specific Violations

1. Cheating

· Using notes, texts, or other print or electronic aids (calculators, cell phones, smart watches, etc.) during a test or quiz without teacher permission

· Copying the work of others and/or allowing others to view or otherwise obtain your answers or copy your work during a test or quiz or on homework, even if the other person’s work has been “put into your own words” or reworded

· Allowing other parties to assist in the completion of your test, quiz, homework, paper, or project, without teacher permission

· Helping or attempting to help another individual commit an act of academic dishonesty

· Stealing, reproducing, circulating, or otherwise gaining access to examination materials prior to the time authorized by an instructor

· Using or circulating previously given examination materials. Retaining examination materials when those materials are to be returned to the teacher

2. Plagiarism

· Presenting the work of others without proper acknowledgement

· Claiming the words and ideas of another as one’s own

· Failing to properly cite and specifically credit the source of text, web, or other materials in papers, projects, or other assignments.

Consequences for Cheating and Plagiarism

Disciplinary Procedure:

· The teacher will write a referral detailing the incident, and parents will be notified.

· Specific consequences will be given, as outlined in the chart below.





∙2 detentions



∙Educational conversation on integrity with the Administration

∙Letter of apology written to the teacher

∙2 Saturday Schools

∙Parent/Guardian notification

∙Letter of apology written to the teacher

∙Student is required to explain actions to the Board of Discipline

∙3 Saturday Schools

∙Letter of apology written to the teacher

∙Administrative Conference with student, parent/guardian, and administration.

∙30-day Activity Suspension

∙Administration may recommend to the Board of Directors that the student be expelled from Assumption High School.

Academic Procedure in English class:

· The teacher will obtain the source and compare your paper to it.

· The teacher will note the plagiarized/copied sections of your paper.

· The teacher will send your paper and the source to the Director of Student Success.

Level One

Level Two

Level Three

Improper citation

Quoting or paraphrasing up to fifty percent of an assignment without attempt at acknowledgement.

1) Cheating (see definitions)

2) Plagiarizing more than fifty percent of an assignment.

Make up assignment under the supervision of the teacher.

Make up assignment under the supervision of the teacher for 50 percent credit.

A score of zero for the assignment

My signature below indicates an understanding of what behaviors constitute academic dishonesty and an understanding of the consequences for committing an act of academic dishonesty.


Student SignatureDate


Parent SignatureDate

How to Join a Class on TURNITIN.COM

Instructions for New Students:

1. Go to 

2. Click on “Create Account” in the upper right corner of the webpage.

3. It will open a new window; where it says “Create a New Account” click the “Student” link.

4. Now, follow the directions on the “New User” page to create your account.

5. Then, type the numeric class ID# and the class enrollment key for your class.

6. Once you have successfully done this, your class will show up on your homepage.

7. Now, you can click on the class name, and you will see the assignments and submissions for that class.

Instructions for Returning Students:

1. Go to 

2. Click on “Log In” in the upper right corner of the webpage.

3. Enter your Assumption E-mail and your Turnitin account password; if you have forgotten your password, click “Forgot Password.”

4. Once logged into your account, click on the “Enroll in a Class” tab to the upper left of the screen. Now, type the numeric class ID# and the class enrollment password your instructor gave you.

5. Now, type the numeric class ID# and the class enrollment key for your class.

6. Once you have successfully done this, your class will show up on your homepage.

7. Now, you can click on the class name, and you will see the assignments and submissions for that class.

How to Submit a Paper on TURNITIN.COM

1. Log in and click on the title of the class.

2. Now click the blue "Submit" button for the assignment.

3. Where it says "Submit" (at the top of the page) select "Single File Upload.” Do not use the "Cut & Paste Upload" option.

4. Next, in the "Submission Title" area, you need to type your period number, then space, then your last name.

Submission Title Examples

3 Jones

2 Smith

7 Washington

5. Now, select the upload option: "Choose from this computer" – This lets you browse to find a file saved on your computer. Find and select the file and then click "Open."

6. After you click the "Upload" button at the bottom, you need to STOP and WAIT for the next page to appear.

7. For the final step, you must click "Confirm" to confirm your submission.

8. If everything worked out, you will get a confirmation in your AHS email inbox.

Punctuation Review

Commas ( , )

The big four:

Sets off introductory clauses/phrases

Separates clauses in compound sentences

Sets off non-restrictive* information (*extra)

Separate items in a list (be sure to use the Oxford comma!)

And three more:

Introduces a quote or dialogue

Separates coordinate* adjectives

(*can place “and” between them)

Indicates contrast

Semicolons ( ; )

Connects two closely related sentences

Can ONLY go where a period could also go!

Colons ( : )

Introduces a list or an illustration/example

Can ONLY go after an independent clause!


· Bring these items to the ACT: an admission ticket, pencils, and a watch.

· There is only necessary personal trait: perseverance.


· You should bring: an admission ticket, pencils, and a watch to the ACT.

Apostrophes (’)

Used in contractions.

Used to make nouns possessive. (Possessive pronouns have their own forms, like my/mine and their/theirs.)

Add ’s to all singular nouns and plural nouns that don’t end in “s.”

Paul’s book.Jesus’s life.The women’s shoe department

Add just ’ to plural nouns that end in “s”

The carpenters’ tools

Don’t mix up plurals and possessives!

Adding an s makes most nouns plural. Adding ’s makes nouns possessive.

Parentheses ( )

Sets off explanations or definitions

Whatever is in parentheses is extra information. It is of lesser importance than the rest of the sentence.


· The atmosphere on Venus (an uninhabitable planet) is not like Earth’s.

· There is a paucity (scarcity) of information about the most distant parts of the galaxy.

Dashes( –)

Separate extra information from the rest of the sentence

Can emphasize whatever they surround

Can indicate an interruption in thought or in speaking

Can can set off entire independent clauses within another sentence


· All four of them—Bob, Jeffrey, Jason, and Brett—did well in college.

· Mr. Lee is suited to the job—he has more experience than everyone else in the department—but he has been dealing with some things at home recently and would probably not be available for hire.

Hyphens (-)

Combine compound adjectives. Compound adjectives modify a word as one unit rather than separately.


· It was an ill-fated plan.

· She didn’t want a run-of-the-mill pony; she wanted an appaloosa.


· She was wearing tall-black boots.

Quotation Marks

When writing dialogue…

When citing from a text…

periods and commas inside the quotation marks.

semicolons and colons outside quotation marks.

question marks and exclamation points inside quotation marks if they belong to the quotation

double quotation marks around direct quotations

single quotation marks around quotations within quotations (triple-quote dialogue)

remove final period, comma, colon, or semicolon.

keep final “?” or “!”

period after the parenthetical

do NOT place quotation marks around something that is paraphrased

Steps for Writing an Expository Essay

First, you tackle the prompt.

•Read the prompt carefully.

•Determine what you are being asked to do and how you are being asked to do it.

•Try to “break it down” into parts.

Next, write your thesis.

The thesis must…

•Tell the reader exactly what the essay will prove.

•Be clear and concise.

•Answer the prompt

•Be arguably true

•Avoid being vague

•Hint: use key words from the prompt in your thesis!

Now, decide on your structure.

•Think about how you want to organize your ideas.

•Can you order your ideas from convincing to most convincing?

•Can you order your information chronologically (beginning, middle, end)?

•Does the prompt suggest categories for you?

•Now come up with the points (“claims”) you want to use to support your thesis, one for each body paragraph.

•You can put the claims first in the paragraph (these are called topic sentences), or you can put them last (these are called warrants). Either way, the claim lays out the point of the paragraph.

•If you are stumped as you try to come up with claims, say to yourself, “My thesis is true because…” Keep thinking about that until you have your desired number of clear claims that prove the thesis is true.

Find evidence..

•Think about each claim. How do you know it is true? What part of the book could you use or where could you go to find some evidence (quotes, facts, statistics, expert opinions, etc.) to convince a reader your claim is true?

•Now, use your notes, study guides, your research, or even a full text of a novel online to find the page numbers, chapters, webpages, or articles where the evidence is located.

•Finally, open your book (or pull up an online source), find the quote (or the section you want to paraphrase), and then write or type up the evidence word-for-word; include the page number or a citation entry (if it is a web source) so you can cite properly later.


Develop your body paragraphs.

A) Write your CLAIM (“topic sentence”)

•this is the main idea of a paragraph

•this should answer “What is the point of this paragraph?”

•it should be obvious this claim proves the thesis

B) Add EVIDENCE after the CLAIM; the EVIDENCE should clearly prove the claim

•Try to make your paragraph flow nicely by introducing or setting up your evidence; don’t just shove evidence into the paragraph with no regard for smoothness

•Paraphrase when you just need to say what happened but don’t need to show anything specific (still add citation).

•Use quotes when there’s a powerful line, sentence, or paragraph that will help show and convince your reader that your claim is true.

•Quotes are ALWAYS stronger proof than paraphrasings.


•Analysis ANALYSIS must clearly and thoroughly explain how the EVIDENCE proves the CLAIM.

D) Make sure your body paragraphs flows nicely!

•Beginners should try using this order: [ C-E-A-transition-E-A ] as a way to organize ideas.

•Try to use transition words or phrases to transition nicely from one idea to another within the paragraph (especially when you’re switching from C-E-A to the next E-A).

Write the introduction.

A) Start with a HOOK.

•Hooks are broader than the story/novel/poem/play; they don’t even mention the work at all.

•Get the reader’s attention with a creative, clever, or interesting thought, mini-story, quote, or comment that is related to whatever your thesis topic is.

B) Next, transition to the thesis; mention both the TITLE & AUTHOR.

•Blend nicely from hook to thesis by using transition words/phrases!

•At this point, you should do a tiny bit of summary or discuss characters/events from the book as you connect the hook ideas to the thesis.

C) The THESIS comes LAST.

Finally, write the conclusion.

A) Restate the thesis –restate means say it in a fresh way; do not copy and paste.

B) Briefly summarize main points (if the paper is three or more pages; if it’s under three, skip this).

C) Broaden out. Make an interesting statement that helps show how your topic is relevant, interesting, or useful to everyone.

•Hint #1: It can be nice to link back to the idea(s) in your hook as you broaden out. (Hhuman beings really respond to this kind of closure –we like when things “come full circle.”).


with the topics and ideas you’ve already discussed in the paper!

Wait at least a few hours, if possible, and then revise. Wait again before editing.

Revision: Check to ensure your claims, evidence, and analysis are strong and make sense. Re-word vague and awkward sentences. Take out ideas that go off-topic. Make sure the essay flows nicely.

Editing: Fix grammar and punctuation mistakes. Look for MLA-formatting mistakes. Identify typos and spelling errors!

Hint: I it helps to either read your work aloud or have someone else read it to you as you follow along with your marking pen.

Transition Words and Phrases


· furthermore

· moreover

· too

· also

· in the second place

· again

· in addition

· even more

· next

· further

· last, lastly

· finally

· besides

· and, or, nor

· first

· second, secondly, etc.


· while

· immediately

· never

· after

· later, earlier

· always

· when

· soon

· whenever

· meanwhile

· sometimes

· in the meantime

· during

· afterwards

· now, until now

· next

· following

· once

· then

· at length

· simultaneously

· so far

· this time

· subsequently

Exemplification or Illustration

· to illustrate

· to demonstrate

· specifically

· for instance

· as an illustration

· e.g., (for example)

· for example


· in the same way

· by the same token

· similarly

· in like manner

· likewise

· in similar fashion


· yet

· and yet

· nevertheless

· nonetheless

· after all

· but

· however

· though

· otherwise

· on the contrary

· in contrast

· notwithstanding

· on the other hand

· at the same time


· to summarize

· in sum

· in brief

· to sum up

· in short

· in summary

· in conclusion

· to conclude

· finally

Tone and Mood Words

Tone: the author’s attitude toward his/her subject



Approving/ Complimentary

Passionate/Fervent (very enthusiastic)







Sincere (honest, earnest, straight-forward)



Objective/Impartial (unbiased, matter-of-fact)

Urgent (insistent, very serious, the issue is crucial)

Intimate (sharing very personal/private information)

Didactic (trying to teach something)



Imaginative (fanciful and creative)

Frank/Direct (matter-of-fact, straight-forward)

Indifferent (not caring, disconnected)



Accusatory (blaming someone)




Insensitive (not sensitive to other’s feelings)

Critical (finding fault)


Mocking (making fun of)






Malicious (mean and hurtful)

Condescending/Patronizing (acting as though others are inferior or stupid)

Pessimistic/Cynical (very negative, hopeless)

Mood: how the text is supposed to make the reader feel































































Google Search Tips

· Use single words or phrases. Do NOT write out sentences/questions.

· Ex: “gun control” laws Iowa

· Use quotation marks around phrases to make sure they are searched as a unit

· Ex: “death penalty”

· Ex: “teen dating”

· Put the most important words FIRST in your keywords list. (Google prioritizes based on the order each word appears.)

· Ex: hybrid electric fuel vehicles

· Use at least three keywords to get the best results.

· Ex: interaction vitamins “prescription drugs”

· Ex: anorexia "warning signs" “eating disorders”

· Use minus signs (-) to eliminate common results you don’t want.

· Ex: cowboys “wild west” –football

Note: make sure you do not put a space after the minus sign

Research Terms

1. annotated bibliography

2. APA

3. appendix

4. author

5. bibliography

6. brackets

7. c. or ca. (circa)

8. cite/citation

9. copyright/copyrighted

10. document

11. e.g. (exempli gratia)

12. editor

13. ellipsis

14. et. al. (et alia)

15. glossary

16. i.e. (id est)

17. ibid. (ibidem)

18. index

19. in-text citation

20. MLA

21. outline

22. pagination

23. paraphrase

24. parenthetical

25. periodical

26. plagiarism

27. preface

28. prefatory

29. publication

30. quotation/quote

31. reference

32. research

33. subtitle

34. summary

35. synthesize

36. table of contents

37. thesis statement

38. title page

39. translator

40. works cited

MLA Web Evaluation

*If something is missing, you SKIP IT.


“Webpage/Article Name.”

Website/Container Name.

Other contributors, Version, Number,

Publisher or Sponsor,

Date Created or Updated,

Location. (often, this is the URL; skip for now)

Should we trust the author/publisher? YES / NO

· The author’s name is visible.

· If there is no author, the publisher is well known and respected.

· The publisher’s name is usually at the bottom of the page by a copyright symbol; you can also use to find the publisher (it will be labeled “Registrant Org”)

· The author is an expert in the field.

· Check this by reading the author information at the bottom or top of the article, in the “About” section of the website, or through using Wikipedia.

Is this website respectable?YES / NO

· This website does not have too many ads, “click-bait” titles, or links that go to baloney like weight-loss stuff, celebrity gossip, or mindless top-ten lists.

· This article is NOT a slide-show article.

· This website looks professional and grown-up. The writing does not contain stupid mistakes, and the language is serious and mature.

· This site does not use a lot of bright/flashy colors and/or huge pictures everywhere.

Is the article informative, not just opinion?YES / NO

· Does the author cite his or her sources through links or at the bottom of the page?

· Is the article filled with facts, statistics, and expert opinions?

Basic Speaking and Reading Guidelines

Speed: Most people speed up when they are nervous.

· Before you go, relax by taking deep breaths and imagining yourself doing a great job.

· When practicing alone, your time should be 1 minute greater than the goal. You will speed up a little.

· The more you practice, the less nervous you will be. Pause to take a breath when you need to!

Filler Words: (Common fillers include um/uh, like, so, anyway, and you know.)

· We often use filler words when we are nervous; more practice will help you avoid some of this.

· In everyday life, we often use fillers in an effort to ensure no one jumps in, takes over, or interrupts us; you can try practicing avoiding these words by replacing them with a simple pause or a breath instead.


· If you’re soft-spoken, it’s okay, but you must speak with energy and passion so your voice will carry.

· On the flip side, no one likes to be shouted at. Pick a normal volume, and just project your voice. Your throat will feel strained if you are yelling; if your throat hurts, try projecting by speaking/breathing from the chest/diaphragm (rather than from the head).


· If there are words in your speech you have trouble pronouncing, practice saying them correctly. You can also spell them out phonetically on your notecards!

· Don’t mumble or slur words; imagine you are pushing words out of your mouth, and slow down.

Eye Contact: Do not just read off your notes the whole time!

· Notes are not for you to read off your entire speech! They are there to help you remember what’s next and to help you get facts, quotations, and verbal citations exactly correct.

· Find a few friendly faces in the crowd, and make eye contact with them. If you really can’t do eye contact, try looking at people’s hair (or mouths), or look right above their heads.

Body Language: Nervous vs. Confident

· Nervous Actions: Pacing, swaying, slouching, crossing your arms over your chest or stomach, putting your hand in your pocket, playing with clothing or hair, messing with your notecards.

· Confident Actions: have a firm stance, only do a few steps one way or the other when you are transitioning in your speech, and make appropriate hand gestures.

Citation Styles

Citation styles differ mostly in the location, order, and syntax of source information.

The number and diversity of citation styles reflect different priorities among different disciplines of study/research with respect to concision, readability, dates, authors, publications, and, of course, style.

There are two major divisions within most citation styles:

1) Documentary-note style: superscript numbers direct the reader to a footnote or endnote; this makes source information both readily available and minimally disruptive to the reader.

Please note: documentary-note style is common to MLA, but almost never used in APA.

2) Parenthetical style: takes up much less space and is much more concise in what it includes; however, it may interfere with how smoothly your work reads.

No matter which style one uses, one must include a "Works Cited" or “References” page.

How do you know which citation style is right for your paper?

Ask your instructor! There are several factors determining the appropriate citation style, including the type of class, the academic expectations, and the teacher’s preferences.

Citation Styles by Area of Study




English Language and Literature

Literary Criticism and Comparative Literature

Art History




Foreign Language and Literatures

Cultural Studies

Social Sciences:











Physical Sciences

Natural Sciences





Used in humanities


Citation page at end

Used in social sciences

Citation page labeled

“Works Cited”

Must list every source used within the citation page

Citation page labeled


Author’s name in Works Cited:

Last name, First name.

Smith, Jayson

Must cite all ideas, information, numbers, statistics, facts, or wording taken from any source, including when one has paraphrased!

Author’s name in References:

Last name, First initial.

Smith, J.

If the author’s name is given in a signal phrase, only the page number appears in the in-text (parenthetical) citation.

According to linguist Jayson Smith, “The cultural import of certain words…” (34).

In both citation styles, quotes are integrated smoothly into the text with lead-in statements, signal phrases, and other rhetorical set-ups.

If the author’s name is given in a signal phrase, place the year of publication after the author’s name parenthetically.

Linguist Jayson Smith (1995) states that “The cultural import of certain words…”

If the author’s name is not given in a lead-in, the author’s name and page number should be placed in a parenthetical to end the sentence.

The scientists found a 22% correlation between the trait and the life outcome (Smith 34).

In MLA and APA, if the

author’s name is nowhere to be found, the title of the source is used in both signal phrases and parenthetical references.

MLA (“Word Magic” 34) APA (“Word Magic,” 1995)

If the author’s name is not given in a lead-in, the author’s name, a comma, and the year of publication should be placed in a parenthetical to end the sentence.

The scientists found a 22% correlation between the trait and the life outcome (Smith, 1995).

Block quotes: quotes of 4+ lines (typed) are indented 1 inch (tab twice).

Each style sets longer quotations off from the rest of the text in a “block quote.”

Block quotes: quotes of 40+ words are indented 1/2 inch (tab once).

Converting MLA to APA: Formatting

Title Page

· Highlight the whole paper (ctrl+A); make sure it’s double-spaced and in TNR 12 font.

· Now, to get a fresh page above your first page of text, press ctrl+enter. Next, hit enter (or “return”) until your cursor is 4.5 inches down—look at the ruler to check. Then, press ctrl+e to center the cursor.

· On line one, type the title of your paper (use title-case). On line two, type your name (with middle initial). On line three, type the name of your school.


· Click on “header” and choose “Blank, Three Columns.” Click in the left-hand column, then type out the title of your paper in ALL CAPS.

· Then, click the right-hand column, go to “insert,” and click the choice that adds a page number (choose the one that says “current position” & then “plain”). Delete middle column.


· Click after the name of your school, hit enter, and then hit ctrl+enter. Now you are on a new page. This is where you will write the abstract. If the professor requires an abstract, it should have 100-200 words.

· Summarize the material presented in the paper, including conclusions or findings. Start by writing “Abstract” on the first line of this page (centered & plain font). Hit enter only once. Left-align your cursor. Write about what the research showed and what the paper concludes.

· Now write a concise summary of the key points of your research (do not indent.) Your abstract should be only one single paragraph, TNR 12 font, double-spaced.


· Go onto a new page. Write the title of your paper, centered, in plain font.

· Unlike MLA, APA uses headings. Main headings state the main idea of the paragraph, use title case, and are centered and bold, but they still use size 12 TNR font. Sample headings may say something like these: Introduction, Animal Testing Practices, Problems with Animal Testing, Alternatives to Animal Testing, Conclusion.

· Sub-headings (optional) state sub-points within the paragraph. These are left-justified, bold, TNR 12 font, and in title case. Here are sample sub-headings that could appear under the Animal Testing Practices paragraph: Cosmetics Testing, Pharmaceutical Testing, and Weapons Testing.

Once you have all of your formatting and headings set up, check out the APA in-text citation rules on the next page; then you can type up the essay.

Once your essay is typed up, pages 5-8 in this packet can help you convert your MLA Works Cited page to an APA References page.

Converting MLA to APA: In-Text Citation

· Basic In-Text Citation format:

· Author present: (Smith, 2008, p. 32).

· No author present: (“Discipline in Schools,” 2018).

· Signal phrases are the same in MLA or APA.

· Option 1: According to Dr. James Smith, in an article from the Journal of Scientific Research, “blah blah blah” (2008, p. 32).

· Option 2: According to Dr. James Smith (2008), in an article from the Journal of Scientific Research, “blah blah blah” (p. 32).

· No pages? – Skip the pages then!

· Option 1: Interestingly, the recent article from the pages of the Journal of Scientific Research contains new information about the subject: “blah blah blah” (Smith, 2008).

· Option 2: According to Dr. James Smith (2008), in an article from the Journal of Scientific Research, “blah blah blah.”

· Institutional author? – List the organization or agency as the author.

· There’s no author AND no institutional author? Give the title of the article in place of the author’s name.

· Option 1: According to “Word Magic” (2008), an article from the Journal of Scientific Research, “blah blah blah.”

· Option 2: Interestingly, the recent article from the pages of the Journal of Scientific Research contains new information about the subject: “blah blah blah” (“Word Magic,” 2008).

Sample APA In-Text Citations


When directly quoting, find a way to include all key elements: quotation marks, author, year of publication, and page #(s).

Ex 1: According to Jones (1998), “students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).

Ex 2: She stated, “students often had difficulty using APA style,” but she did not offer an explanation as to why (Jones, 1998, p. 199).


Direct quotations of 40+ words go in a block of text without quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line and tab once (an indent of only 0.5” from the left margin). Keep it double-spaced. Then, the parenthetical citation comes after the closing punctuation mark.

Ex: The well-known teaching manual made an interesting point:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or ask their teacher for help. (Jones, 1998, p. 199)


When paraphrasing an idea from another’s work, you must refer to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. APA guidelines encourage you to provide page numbers; however, technically, page numbers are only required for direct quotes.

Ex 1: According to Jones (1998, p. 32), APA style can be a difficult citation format for first-time learners, so it is important to consult the Purdue Owl sometimes.

Ex 2: APA style can be a difficult citation format for first-time learners, so it is important to consult the Purdue Owl sometimes (Jones, 1998, p. 32).


To talk about a work discussed within another work (a citation within a citation), cite ONLY the source you read in the References page, and then cite like this in-text:

Foucault (as cited in Spivak, 1992) defines this as...

Foucault = original / Spivak = secondary source (the one you were looking at)

Converting MLA Works Cited to APA References

Formatting Basics

· In APA, title this page References (plain/normal font & centered at top of page).

· Do not put any extra space between the title and entries or between entries.

· As with MLA, alphabetize, double space, and use hanging indents.

Author Names

· APA uses the author’s first and middle initials and last name; it goes up to seven (not four) authors; and it always inverts author’s first and last names (not just the first one).

· Multiple authors? Keep inverting their names, and use & instead of “and.”

· More than seven authors? List the first six, then an ellipsis, and then the final author.

Date of Publication

· APA includes the date of publication in parenthesis. If it is a specific date, spell out the month, and write it in this order: (2002, April 16). If it’s just a year, put the year: (2002).

Title of Source

· In titles, APA only capitalizes the first letter of the first word, the first word after a colon or a dash, and proper nouns. 

· Use italics for full-length works and container names (books, movies, websites, journals).

· In the reference page (but not in the paper or parenthetical citation), titles of short works appear in plain font, without quotation marks or other formatting.

Title of Container

· If there is a container, like the title of the website, journal, database, or textbook the source exists within, its title of this container is italicized. Also, for this container title, go back to title case capitalization: capitalize all words besides conjunctions and short prepositions.

Volume and Issue Number

· If there is a volume number, it is italicized.

· If there is a journal number, put it in parentheses.

Page Range

· For the second-to-last part of the entry, we include the page range, if that is available.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(1), 893-896.


· Now, if the source was found online, we have one final element to add. Notice there’s no period after the url:

Retrieved from http://www.paste_the_whole_url

APA References Examples


Author, A. (year of publication). Title of book. City of publication: Publisher.

Calfee, R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication.

Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


Author, A. & Author, B. (year of publication). Title of book. City of publication:


Calfee, R. & Valencia, R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal

Publication. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Barnes, J., Nichols, E., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). Self-esteem stability. Boston: New Wave Book Publishers.


Institutional author (year of publication). Title of book. City of publication:


American Allergy Association (1998). Allergies in Children. New York: Random House.


Author, A. (year of publication). Title of chapter or article. In Editor (Ed.), Title of

Book (pages of chapter or article). City of publication: Publisher.

Gladwell, M. (2007). What the dog saw. In D. F. Wallace (Ed.), Best American

Essays 2007 (86-102). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


Author, A. (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume Number (Issue

Number), Pages.

Harlow, H. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 (1), 893-896.


Author, A. (date of publication). Title of article or page. Website Title.

Retrieved from http://Web address

Angeli, E. (2010, September 5). General format. Purdue Owl. Retrieved from


All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). MSNBC. Retrieved

from http://www.msnbc.



Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper,


Stewart, K. (2006, August 21). No time for sleeping. The New York Times, B1.

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper.

Retrieved from http://Web address

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, December 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry.

The New York Times. Retrieved from

APA Web Evaluations

*If something is missing, you SKIP IT.


Last, F.

(Date Published).

Title of source

Print? Book title. / Online? “Webpage/Article Name.”

Place of Publication:

Print? City: Publisher.

Online? Website or Container Name.

Volume (issue), pages.

Online? Add this:

Retrieved from https://www.homepageurl

Should we trust the author/publisher?

· The author’s name is visible, OR, if there is no author, the publisher is well known and respected. (Note: The publisher’s name is usually at the bottom of the page by a copyright symbol; it may also appear on the company’s Wikipedia page or its “About” page.)

· The author is an expert in the field. (Note: You might be able to check on this by reading author information at the bottom or top of an article, in the “About” section of the website, or through Wikipedia/Google.)

Is this website respectable?

· This website does not have too many ads, “click-bait” titles, or links that go to baloney like weight-loss stuff, celebrity gossip, game apps, or dating tips/apps.

· This article is NOT a slide-show or “top-ten” style article (those are mindless clickbait!).

· This website looks professional and grown-up. This site is not bright/flashy/distracting, there is at least as much text as picture/video, the writing does not contain stupid mistakes, and the language is serious and mature.

Is the article well-researched and not just opinion?

· Does the author cite his or her sources either through blue/underlined links that appear within the source you read or in a sort of Works Cited at the bottom of the article/webpage?

· Does the article contain at least two of the following elements: facts, statistics, logical reasoning, and expert opinions?

Do you trust this source? YES/NO

Look at the boxes you have checked off or left blank.

If you are unsure whether to circle YES or NO, ask the instructor to look over the source.