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Visual Culture and the Holocaust: Nazi Anti-Semitic Propaganda

Sep 06, 2014

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Social and political reasoning uses predetermined national security to defend its position against European Jewry. Historic animosity, paranoia, and social fatigue led to false defensive actions against the Jews. Wrongful blame, according to socialist doctrines, both accelerated and intensified after the out come and Germany’s Nationalist position after World War I.

The undercurrent attitudes, extended anti-Semitic ideologies dating back to Martin Luther’s protestant reformation, and the events and circumstances surrounding the French inquisition. The predominant historic attitudes of European citizens continually resented the Jewish communities wealth and supposed economic influences. European Jewry previously had been denied land ownership rights in Russia, France, Germany, and England. This political and economic restriction forced the International Jewish Diaspora to turn inward, relying on the extension of community and its cross-cultural connections incorporating academia, and the trade and distribution of marketable goods.

Jewish national identity has continually focused on their biblical Holy Land of the ‘Chosen People,’ Palestine, Israel and the city of Jerusalem. This affection continued to provide them with a strong emotional and national pride. A people without land to claim as their own, left Jews around the world to identify first with religious conviction, and secondly with their national/state of occupancies. This conviction, to the ideological state of Israel, considered by residential communities to represent a lack of National pride in the host country, such as Germany, Italy, Poland, Bohemia, the Ukraine, Russia, and the Balkan States. This apparent and deliberate lack of National pride provoked citizens and wrongfully encouraged ideologies of mistrust, questioned solidarity, paranoid rumors of espionage, and undercurrents of potential revolutionaries.

  • VISUAL CULTURE AND THE HOLOCAUST NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA HISTORIC VISUAL SURVEY John P Corrigan GD///MFA AH5622 Visual Culture and the Holocaust Jennifer Hirsh Spring 2007 Fight for Freedom logo, a British anti- Nazi campaign, c. 1941. 1
  • | NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA INTRODUCTION anti-semitism leading to the holocaust 3 The Wandering Jew (The Eternal Jew) Der-Ewige-Jude, Poster design by Horst Schlter.1937. (Aynsley, 197) Even though the headline text is in German, the type is stylized into Hebrew letter forms. The text reads from left to right, where as Hebrew is written and reads from right to left. The image of the Jewish figure is distortingly hunched, and facial gesture have been exaggerated. The figure also carries a stone portion representing a broken fragmented Russia. The film, The Wandering Jew, produced by Jewsih Zionists, was twisted by Nazi propagnda exploiting the Jewish quest for a return to Palestine.
  • VISUAL CULTURE AND THE HOLOCAUST | Social and political reasoning uses predetermined national security to defend its position against European Jewry. Historic animosity, paranoia, and social fatigue led to false defensive actions against the Jews. Wrongful blame, according to socialist doctrines, both accelerated and intensified after the out come and Germanys Nationalist position after World War I. The undercurrent attitudes,extended anti-Semitic ideologies dating back to Martin Luthers protestant reformation,and the events and circumstances surrounding the French inquisition.The predominant historic attitudes of European citizens continually resented the Jewish communities wealth and supposed economic influences.European Jewry previously had been denied land ownership rights in Russia,France,Germany,and England.This political and economic restriction forced the International Jewish Diaspora to turn inward,relying on the extension of community and its cross-cultural connections incorporating academia,and the trade and distribution of marketable goods. Jewish national identity has continually focused on their biblical Holy Land of theChosen People,Palestine,Israel and the city of Jerusalem.This affection continued to provide them with a strong emotional and national pride.A people without land to claim as their own,left Jews around the world to identify first with religious conviction, and secondly with their national/state of occupancies.This conviction,to the ideological state of Israel,considered by residential communities to represent a lack of National pride in the host country,such as Germany,Italy,Poland,Bohemia,the Ukraine,Russia, and the Balkan States.This apparent and deliberate lack of National pride provoked citizens and wrongfully encouraged ideologies of mistrust,questioned solidarity, paranoid rumors of espionage,and undercurrents of potential revolutionaries. National pride of European nations intensified after the Great War.Germany suffered great losses after the fall of World War I.Germany was severely severed and fractured in social and economic depression.Germany looked to their National identity and government for answers as to the demise of their once powerful nation.The National Socialist party looked to answer these questions,ending blame on the Jews. 1933 JANUARY German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and freedom from invasion of privacy (mail, telephone, telegraph), and from house search without warrant. March The concentration camp at Dachau is established. July Nazis pass a law requiring the forced sterilization of those found to have genetic defects. September German Jews are forbidden from owning land. October German Jews are forbidden from being newspaper editors. Timeline events focus on anti- Semitic legislation and actions directed by the Nazi regime.
  • | NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA 654 The Wire Puller: Brain-and Manual Workers Vote for the Peoples Bloc, Election poster, 1924. (Herf, 33) Behind the Enemy Powers: The Jew Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, by Hans Schweitzer, 1943. (Herf) Jewish Conspiracy against Europe, Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda 1941. (Herf, 143) Political posters from the begining of the Nazi regime, and through the end of the war, consistently depicted the Jewish man as the mastermind behind all oppositional politcal force. The caricature of the Jewish figure is consistenly positoned behinde, or above, symbols of industrial and politcal influence. These posters represent a lurking Jew, controling the political relationships of Allied agreements between England, Russia and America. Nazi propaganda used sterotypical caricatures of the overweight British bourgeois and heavy forcefulness of the Jewish politican. Other Nazi sterotypes focused on religious Jews; these depictions exaggerated the beard, nose, ears, and lips in appoving facial gestures. The Nazis commonly depicted Jewish conspirators safely hidden away in the safety and luxury of influence in America or England.
  • VISUAL CULTURE AND THE HOLOCAUST | Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda presented Hitler and Germany as merely responding to political threats,initiatives,and injustices of others.Propaganda initiatives portrayed the Germans innocence, turning the power relationships of the Jews upside down.Hitler projected his own paranoia,twisting historical world events to make claims of the diabolical intentions of International,and world Jewry. Nazis projected blame onto the Jews at the outbreak of World War II.According to Hitler and the Nazi party,it was the Jews who had launched the war against Germany,thus compelling the Nazi party to retaliate. Germany would use propaganda tactics to contradict historical events,making simultaneous claims of a master race and world domination.With world domination,paranoia,and the self-pity of victimization,the Nazis used propaganda to convince themselves and the rest of the world that they were the victims.The Nazis believed they had uncovered deep secrets of modern history and politics.Through means of propaganda,the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium fr Volksaufklrung und Propaganda) was to educate the people,(Herf,6) of thetruerealities. The mid-late 1930s the political consensus led to the Nuremburg Race Laws.The newly enacted laws would deny citizen- ship,encourage economic impoverishment of Jewsthe enemy to the sate and well being of Germany.Anti-Semitism rested on the belief that the Jews were a cohesive and politically active power that was seeking the destruction of Germany.Nazi propaganda insisted that the powerful autonomous entity of International Jewry controlled stooges and political accomplices who served their evil interests.An International Jewish political force was falsely exposed for effecting leaders in Great Britain,the Soviet Union (under the Bolsheviks,) and the United States.The Nazis made claims that Jews were masters of camouflage,able to unknowingly afflict its goals at the unsuspecting 1934 May German Jews are forbidden from receiving national health insurance. NAZI AGENDA
  • | NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA Germans.Nazi propaganda made its initial effort to expose,identify,and destroy the supposed goal of German annihilation.Hitler personally sought to exterminate the Jews before they were able to annihilate the contemporary German empire. Established decades prior to the Nazi party, The Protocols of Zion,popularized fictitious themes of Jewish conspiracy.Twisting historical events effecting German strength,The Protocols of Zion supposedly answered questions to policies that beleaguered Germany after World War I. The campaigns only rationale was to blunt the sensibilities of the people regarding the campaign of persecution and murder which was being carried outthey were not designed to unite the German people in the war effortsub due any doubtracial persecution to which the Jews were to be subjected 1 1 Judgement, Trials of War criminals before the Nuremburg Military Tribunal (IMT), 14, 565-576. Otto Dietrich testified at the Nuremburg Military trial stating (Herf, 23) Election poster, 1932. (Heller, 64) 8 All of Germany listens to the Fhrer with the Peoples Receiver. Designed by Leonoid. 1936. (Aynsley, 179) 7 The audience is directed at the people of Germany, which refer to Aryan decendents. Both the visual tone and the language is set to Fraktur, calling on German Nationalism.
  • VISUAL CULTURE AND THE HOLOCAUST | Before the official beginning and declaration of war in 1939, propaganda had been used to propagate the new world order according to the Nazis,and vilify the enemy.The industrial revolution allowed the proliferation of posters,uniforms,street graphics and political banners en masse.The propaganda image both unified and identified political opponents giving faces to the enemies of the Reich, creating solidarity amongst leaders,followers,as well as the crushed opposition. Leadership figures embodied the power and ideology of Nazi Germany.For the first time,photographic representation allowed images of Hitler to become icons.(Hollis,108) Through photographic representation,the Jewish enemy would also be vilified.Jewish faces could also be used to identify,misrepresent,and exaggerate anti-Semitic stereotypes,to the disadvantage of the Jews. Direct photographic representation was better suited to symbolic representation of the power of the Nazi party,and expose and propagate the negative connotations of the Jews. Posters were used by the Nazi party to boost morale among its o