Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Urban River Basin Enhancement · PDF fileUrban River Basin Enhancement Methods funded by European Commission 5 th Framework Programme, Key Action 4 “City of tomorrow and cultural

Aug 03, 2018

ReportDownload

Documents

dotuyen

  • Urban River Basin Enhancement Methods

    funded by

    European Commission

    5 th Framework Programme, Key Action 4 City of tomorrow and cultural heritage

    Existing Urban River Rehabilitation Schemes

    (Work package 2)

    Final Report

    Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Dresden (IOER)

    Jochen Schanze, Alfred Olfert

    Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden)

    Joachim T. Tourbier, Ines Gersdorf, Thomas Schwager

    June 2004

  • i

    Further partners involved from the URBEM team

    University of Agricultural Sciences Vienna (BOKU) Hubert Holzmann, Rudolf Faber

    Portuguese National Civil Engineering Laboratory Joao Rocha

    University of Ljubljana - Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering Mitja Brilly

    Javno podjete Vodovod-Kanalizacija (JP VO-KA) Drago Dolenc

    Cemagref Parcel Breill

    Centre for Urban Waters UK Cedo Maksimovic

    Acknowledgement

    This study has been funded as work package 2 of the URBEM research project by the European Commission under the 5th Framework Programme. The authors furthermore acknowledge Prof. Roger Bettess and Dr. Joao Rocha for their valuable review.

  • ii

  • URBEM Existing Urban River Rehabilitation Schemes IOER & TU Dresden

    iii

    Table of Contents

    1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Urban River Rehabilitation and the URBEM project ....................................................... 1 1.2 Investigation of existing urban river rehabilitation schemes ........................................... 2 1.3 Baselines of urban water rehabilitation........................................................................... 3 1.4 Urban river rehabilitation in the European context.......................................................... 5

    2 Approach .......................................................................................................................... 8

    2.1 Survey and selection of case studies ............................................................................. 8 2.2 Standardised enquiry.................................................................................................... 11

    3 Characterisation of the case studies ........................................................................... 13

    3.1 Brief description of each case study ............................................................................. 14 3.2 Comparison of general characteristics ......................................................................... 21

    4 Planning and implementation process........................................................................ 30

    4.1 Initiation of urban river rehabilitation projects ............................................................... 30 4.2 Site selection ................................................................................................................ 32 4.3 Aspects of project management ................................................................................... 37 4.4 Site management and maintenance ............................................................................. 43

    5 Rehabilitation techniques ............................................................................................. 45

    5.1 Techniques to improve hydrology and hydrodynamics................................................. 46 5.2 Techniques to improve stream morphology and connectivity....................................... 47 5.3 Techniques to improve water quality ............................................................................ 53 5.4 Techniques to improve biodiversity .............................................................................. 55 5.5 Techniques to improve features of public health and safety......................................... 56

    6 Impacts of river rehabilitation projects ....................................................................... 59

    6.1 Ecological impacts ........................................................................................................ 60 6.2 Social and aesthetic impacts ........................................................................................ 66

    7 Aesthetic evaluation methods...................................................................................... 76

    7.1 State of the art .............................................................................................................. 76 7.2 Aspects of aesthetics considered in urban river enhancement .................................... 77 7.3 Applied aesthetic evaluation methods .......................................................................... 79

  • URBEM Existing Urban River Rehabilitation Schemes IOER & TU Dresden

    iv

    8 Social appraisal and stakeholder involvement ........................................................... 84

    8.1 Legal requirements for public participation ................................................................... 84 8.2 Stakeholders ................................................................................................................. 85 8.3 Informing stakeholders.................................................................................................. 88 8.4 Involving stakeholders in the process ........................................................................... 91 8.5 Stewardship and advocacy ........................................................................................... 96 8.6 Monitoring social impact ............................................................................................... 98

    9 Performance control and indicators of success....................................................... 100

    9.1 Definitions ................................................................................................................... 100 9.2 Performance control as practised ............................................................................... 102 9.3 Towards indicators of success for urban river rehabilitation ....................................... 108

    10 Summary..................................................................................................................... 110

    11 References.................................................................................................................. 113

    12 Acknowledgements for contributions to the case studies .................................... 120

    13 Annexes .......................................................................................................................... 1

    Annex 1 Data enquiry form ..................................................................................................... 1 Annex 2 Description of techniques ......................................................................................... 1

  • URBEM Existing Urban River Rehabilitation Schemes IOER & TU Dresden

    v

    List of Figures

    Figure 1: Objectives of urban river rehabilitation projects 23

    Figure 2: Objectives of ecological improvement in urban rehabilitation projects 24

    Figure 3: Urban pressures and pressures in case study areas 24

    Figure 4: Width of rehabilitated water courses (classification by Huet 1949) 25

    Figure 5: Lengths of rehabilitated sections 26

    Figure 6: Length of rehabilitated sections of water courses and overall size of affected area 26

    Figure 7: Total costs of urban rehabilitation projects 27

    Figure 8: Total costs of urban river rehabilitation projects 28

    Figure 9: Correlation of total project costs and the length of the rehabilitated section 28

    Figure 10: Costs per meter of urban river rehabilitation projects 29

    Figure 11: Initiators of urban river rehabilitation projects 31

    Figure 12: Funding sources for urban river rehabilitation projects 38

    Figure 13: Time frame for realisation of urban river rehabilitation projects 42

    Figure 14: Time line of planning and implementation of urban river rehabilitation projects 42

    Figure 15: Measures to improve stream hydrology and hydrodynamics 46

    Figure 16: Measures to improve instream morphology 49

    Figure 17: Measures to re-establish and to integrate flood plains 51

    Figure 18: Measures improving continuity 52

    Figure 19: Measures to improve water quality 54

    Figure 20: Measures directly improving biodiversity 56

    Figure 21: Measures to improve safety features 57

    Figure 22: Biological conditions of urban waters before and after rehabilitation 60

    Figure 23: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on fish fauna 61

    Figure 24: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on benthic invertebrate fauna 61

    Figure 25: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on benthic macrophytes and phytobenthos 62

  • URBEM Existing Urban River Rehabilitation Schemes IOER & TU Dresden

    vi

    Figure 26: Hydromorphological conditions of urban waters before and after rehabilitation 63

    Figure 27: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on morphological conditions 63

    Figure 28: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on river continuity 64

    Figure 29: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on hydrological regime 64

    Figure 30: Conditions of chemical and physico-chemical components of urban waters before and after rehabilitation 65

    Figure 31: Impact of urban river rehabilitation schemes on general conditions of physico-chemical