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Jul 12, 2015
#OpenEd 2014 November 21, 2014
Universities Without Borders
Tim Boileau, Ph.D.Indiana State University
Social Learning and OER
OER as a Moral Imperative
Open Access = Immediate Access + Full UseOpen content vs. open learning experiences
Process of receiving/giving systematic instruction.Conditions under which learning occurs.Formal (10%) vs. Informal (90%) Learning.
TextbooksCoursesMedia, Games, Articles, Data
A New Learning Paradigm
Social Learning Context
Digital Literacy Pedagogy
Set of interdisciplinary activities for collection, preservation, maintenance, and archiving of digital information and research data, in order to add value to the information and data throughout its lifecycle.
Accumulation of Knowledge by Mankind: 1 - 1500 CE: Doubled in 1500 years (x2) 1500 - 1750: Doubled in 250 years (x4) 1750 - 1900: Doubled in 150 years (x8) Today: The accumulated knowledge of mankind
doubles every 1-2 years (x16, x32, x64, x128,)
(1000 miles)(3,346 Feet)
Digital Curation - Historical Perspective
Digital Curation - Tools
Digital Curation - Domains
Individuals Institutions Society
Digital Curation - Individuals Everyone is a curator; enabled by social media-based
curation tools Despite technology, humans face innate cognitive limitations Required skills for digital curation include:
Analysis NetworkingAssessement Knowledge Construction
Critical Thinking ConceptualizationDistributed Cognition Trans-Media Navigation
Investigation Collective Intelligence
Individual Digital Curation - PLN
Painful truth: Knowledge has an expiration date Leverage social media to build your personal learning
network (PLN) Use your social media account(s) to curate and post
content to own personal learning network #OpenEd14 Get Started! Edublog Teacher Challenge: Create a PLN
Digital Curation Tool Examples
Digital Curation - Institutions
Concept of curation is not new: e.g., institutional memory, archives, knowledge management
What is new: stakeholders expect access to knowledge repositories; to contribute to, and access archived resources
Institutional Curation - DCCDigital Curation Centre (DCC) was established in the UK in 2004, with a focus on the preservation and curation of data collected from research conducted on a global basis. The primary aims of the DCC are:
to promote an understanding of the need for digital curation among communities of scientists and scholars;
to provide services to facilitate digital curation; to share knowledge of digital curation among the many disciplines
for which it is essential; to develop technology in support of digital curation; and, to conduct long-term research into all aspects of digital curation.
DCC Curation Processes1. Conceptualize: conceive and plan the creation of digital objects, including data capture methods and storage
options.2. Create: produce digital objects and assign administrative, descriptive, structural and technical archival metadata.3. Appraise and select: evaluate digital objects and select those requiring long-term curation and preservation.
Adhere to documented guidance, policies and legal requirements.4. Ingest: transfer digital objects to an archive, trusted digital repository, data centre or similar, again adhering to
documented guidance, policies and legal requirements.5. Preservation action: undertake actions to ensure the long-term preservation and retention of the authoritative
nature of digital objects. 6. Store: keep the data in a secure manner as outlined by relevant standards. 7. Access and use: ensure that designated users can easily access digital objects on a day-to-day basis. Some digital
objects may be publicly available, whilst others may be password protected. 8. Transform: create new digital objects from the original, for example, by migration into a different form.9. Dispose: rid systems of digital objects not selected for long-term curation and preservation. Documented
guidance, policies and legal requirements may require the secure destruction of these objects.
Digital Curation - Society
Three Global Trends in Digital Curation (end of 2013): The rise of individual access enabled by smartphones
and tablets, The end of content scarcity as digital distribution has
become ubiquitous, and The shift away from content ownership, facilitated by
always-on networks, to services.
Digital Literacy Skills
Digital literacy skills relate to the use of digital technology tools in activities that locate, create,
communicate, and evaluate information within a networked (online) environment, mediated by
digital computing technologies.
Teaching Digital Literacy Skills
Requires a different epistemological framework than teaching other forms of literacy
Not the same thing as teaching how to use technology What is lacking are the skills to discriminate between
good information and bad information
Digital Literacy - Best Practices Digital literacy should be pedagogically led and
integrated soundly into the curriculum; Educators should use social software and collaborative
technologies to encourage learners to work together; Educators should focus on skills that facilitate lifelong
learning and transferable skills, and Learners should use technology tools to create
Mallon & Gilstrap, 2014
Teaching Digital Literacy (1 of 3)
Functional Skills hands-on, experiential learning to develop competency in basic ICT skills.
Creativity in reference to how learners think, construct knowledge objects, and apply methods for sharing and distribution of knowledge.
Collaboration meaningful learning requires dialogue, discussion, and exchange of ideas with and in relation to others for socially constructed meaning-making to occur.
Hague & Payton, 2010
Teaching Digital Literacy (2 of 3) Communication digital literacy requires additional higher order
communication skills in a world where much communication is mediated by digital technology.
Ability to Find and Select Information related pedagogy is inquiry-based learning; these are fundamental skills that are essential for knowledge development as learners learn how to learn.
Critical Thinking and Evaluation critical thinking is at the core of digital literacy; it includes analysis and transformation of information to create new knowledge; and requires reflection to evaluate and consider different interpretations.
Hague & Payton, 2010
Teaching Digital Literacy (3 of 3) Cultural and Social Understanding provides learners
with a language and context for digital literacy to promote broader understanding and interaction in the creation of meaning.
E-safety in teaching digital literacy, educators have an obligation to support learners in development of skills, knowledge, and understanding that will enable them to make informed decisions in order to protect themselves on an ongoing basis.
Hague & Payton, 2010
Digital Literacy Standards
International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) NETS for Teachers, Students and Administrators
American Association for School Librarians (AASL) Standards for the 21st Century Learner
Partnership for 21st Century Skills Framework for 21st Century Learning
Creating Digital Fluency with OER
Critical thinking evaluative techniques Net savviness knowing how the web works Diversity of sources preponderance of the evidence
Miller & Bartlett, 2012
Currency: The timeliness of the information Do you know when the information was published, posted, or last updated?
Is the information current for your topic and field of study?
RRelevance: The importance of the information for your needs Is the information appropriate for a college-level course?
Is this an adequately in-depth discussion of the topic? Has Canadian perspective or content been provided?
AAuthority: The source of the information Have the author's credentials or organizational affiliations been identified?
Is the author (or authors) qualified to write on the topic? Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organization?
AAccuracy: The reliability and correctness of the informational content Have the author's sources been clearly cited so that you can easily find (and verify) them?
Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
PPurpose: The reason the information exists Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
Does the point of