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Unit One: Chapter One

Feb 24, 2016




Unit One: Chapter One. Introduction to Psychology. Warm Up. Give me three examples of why someone would choose to study psychology. Why Study Psychology?. Behavior and Mental Processes Behavior is an observable action You writing these notes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Unit One

Unit One: Chapter OneIntroduction to PsychologyWarm UpGive me three examples of why someone would choose to study psychology.Why Study Psychology?Behavior and Mental ProcessesBehavior is an observable actionYou writing these notesIf another person cant see it, its not behaviorIf you can see it by performing a test it is also considered behaviorHeart rate and blood pressure can be seen with machinesMental processesCognitive activities Dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memoriesOther people cannot see your dreams or thoughtsPsychological ConstructsWay of identifying things that we cannot measureIe feelings

Why Study Psychology? The Goals of PsychologyBetter understand mental processes and behaviorsPredicting or changing unwanted behaviorBehavior of a person only changes, if they want to change it

Why Study Psychology?Psychology as a ScienceLinked with the natural sciences in studying the functions of the brain.ResearchSurveys and experimentsHuman or animal behaviorSome believe that research done with animals can be applied to humansDo you think that this is ok?

Why Study Psychology?Psychology as a SciencePsychological theoriesTheory is someone trying to explain why things are they way they are.Behavior, mental processes, and biological processesAllows psychologist to predict the behavior or mental process of another personPrinciple is a rule. There is no question that it is the way things work.Theories can be revised but principles cannot.

Vocabulary Chapter OneBehaviorCognitive activitiesConstructsTheoryPrincipleclinical psychologistcounseling psychologistBasic researchintrospectionAssociationismStructuralismFunctionalismBehaviorismGestalt PsychologyPsychoanalysisPsychodynamic thinkingPsychological perspectivesEthnic group

Warm UpWhat does a psychologist do?How many different types of psychologists do you think there are?What psychologists DoThere are many different types of specialization for psychologistsClinical PsychologistsLargest groupWhat people usually think of when they think psychologistHelp people with psychological problems or problems dealing with some aspect of their lifeNot a psychiatrist not a medical doctor

What psychologists doCounseling PsychologistsTreat people with adjustment problems rather than psychological disordersDifficulty making decisions about future plansConflict with family, peers, etc.School psychologists Help students that have problems that interfere with learningDeal with problems with the peer group or familyIQ and achievement tests Advise teachers on how to help students meet educational goalsRecommendations on placement of studentsWhat psychologist doEducational PsychologistsHelping students learnNot focused on specific student but the entire districtDeveloping instructional methods for a districtHelp develop standardized testsDevelopmental PsychologistStudy changes throughout a persons lifetimePhysical, emotional, cognitive, socialNature vs. nurtureMost study adolescence

What psychologists doPersonality Psychologists Identify characteristics and traitsFriendly, nice, outgoingStudy the development of traitsWhy are some people more prone to other traits than others?Social PsychologistsDeal with peoples behavior in social situationsGender differences, attraction, conformity, group membershipPrejudice, discrimination, and aggressionWhat psychologists doExperimental PsychologistsExperimental researchFunctions of the nervous systemCalled biological psychologistsEngage in basic researchHas no immediate application and is done for its own sakeIndustrial and Organizational PsychologistsPeople in the work placeImprove working conditions and increase worker outputWhat psychologists doEnvironmental PsychologistsFocus on the way influence or are influenced by their environmentsConsumer PsychologistStudy the habits of shoppersDo you think that advertisements were developed by psychologists?Forensic PsychologistsWork within the criminal justice systemHealth PsychologistsHow behavior and mental processes effect your healthAdvertisement Create a job advertisement for a psychologist in of the specializations we discussed in class.Describe the duties of psychologist, but do not write which field they are.Post the advertisement somewhere in the room.

AdvertisementWith a partner, walk around the room and try to figure out which psychologist the advertisement is forWrite your guesses in your notebook.Exit Ticket: Then describe one type of psychologist in your own words. Warm UpDraw your own Rorschach Ink blot Tell me why you think this test is no longer used

History of PsychologyAncient GreeceSocrates we can learn about ourselves by examining our thoughts and feelingsAristotle experiences remind us of experiences of the past People are motivate to seek pleasure and avoid painPeri PsychesAssociated psychological problems with supernaturalGods punishing people

History of PsychologyMiddle AgesBelieved that psychological problems were due to be possessed by a demonPunishment for sinningWater-float test if you could keep your head above water you were considered in leagues with the devil. If you sunk you were considered pure, but you also drowned.Modern ScienceJohn Locke knowledge is formed through experience Study of behaviors and mental processes more similar to chemistry (natural sciences)History of PsychologyStructuralismWilhelm WundtDiscovering the basic elements of consciousness Objective sensations - sight and taste are reflections of the outside worldsubjective feelings emotional responses and mental imagesHuman mind functions by combining objective sensations and subjective feelingsHistory of PsychologyFunctionalismWilliam JamesExperience is a stream of consciousnessHow mental processes help organisms adapt to their environmentIntrospection and laboratory experimentsSuccessful actions will become habitsHistory of PsychologyBehaviorism John WatsonConsciousness only known by the individualFocused on only observable behaviorsReinforcementB.F. SkinnerIf you are rewarded for an action, you are more likely to repeat it

History of PsychologyThe Gestalt SchoolMax Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang KohlerPerceptions are more than the sum of their partsCat is still a cat even if its missing its tailDoesnt believe thought can be broken down into parts

History of PsychologyPsychoanalysisSigmund FreudImportance of unconscious motives and internal conflictFreudian slip shows unconscious thought when you misspeak

Find a partner to show your ink blot design toWrite down what your partner says and using psychoanalysis interpret what they are thinking.TimelineCreate a timeline, using the book, of the events, studies, and psychologists that we went over in class.It needs to be decorated with at least two pictures and include all of the earlier schools of psychologyInterpreting Primary SourcesYou will receive a primary source written by one of the men we talked about today. Read the source and try and determine who wrote it.In your notebook, write who you thought it was and why you thought it was that person.Warm upDou you think that all psychologists agree?Why would they disagree?Contemporary PerspectivesBiological perspectiveMental processes are made possible by the nervous systemThe brainInfluence of hormones and genesWhat effect would these things have on personality traits? Or your psychological health?Evolutionary PerspectiveHereditary basis of behaviorContemporary PerspectivesCognitive PerspectiveStudying mental processes to understand human natureInformation processing memory cycle How can processing information differently effect your behavior?Humanistic PerspectiveSelf-fulfillment Consciousness is a force to shape personality

Contemporary PerspectivesPsychoanalytic PerspectiveUnconscious motives influence behaviorLearning PerspectiveMore concerned with what someone does than why they do itReinforcement and influence from environment are importantSocial-learning theory learn by observing othersValues can influence whether you choose to learn something or notContemporary PerspectivesSociocultural PerspectiveHow Ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status effect behavior and mental processesCultural expectations of different groupsHow does that effect your behavior?Chapter One quizIf you finish early, go back through your notebook and finish anything that needs to be completed.

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