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Unit 3: Antebellum Slavery to Reconstruction Chapter 6 Life in the Cotton Kingdom

Jan 11, 2016

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  • Unit 3: Antebellum Slavery to Reconstruction

    Chapter 6Life in the Cotton Kingdom

  • What does Antebellum mean?A period of time before a war, usually refers to the American Civil War. 1820 1861 (start of Civil War) for reference purposes only

  • Section 1: The Expansion of SlaveryInvention of cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793Led to rapid expansion of slavery need land!Atlantic coast to TexasSlave population increased tremendously, 1790-1860Grew fastest in Alabama and Mississippi

  • U.S. Slave Population, 1820 and 1860

  • Slave Population, 18201860Map 62. Slavery spread southwestward from the upper South and the eastern seaboard following the spread of cotton cultivation.Source: Sam Bowers Hilliard, Atlas of Antebellum Southern Agriculture (Louisiana State University Press, 1984), pp. 2934.

  • Cotton Production in the South, 18201860Map 61. Cotton production expanded westward between 1820 and 1860 into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and western Tennessee.Source: Sam Bowers Hilliard, Atlas of Antebellum Southern Agriculture (Louisiana State University Press, 1984) pp. 6771.

  • Ownership: Slaves in the Old SouthSlavery unevenly distributed think about the statistics from yesterday! 25% of white families owned slaves by 1860Nearly half of slaveholders owned fewer than five1% owned more than fifty slaves

  • Slave-Owning Population (1860)

  • Black SlaveholdersThere were Black Slaveholders, because . . .

    They did it to protect families from sale and disruption.Not very popular. In 1830, only 2% of free blacks owned slaves.

  • Section 1 Essential QuestionsCreate an essential question from each of the headings below: The Expansion of Slavery Slave Population Growth and Ownership of Slaves in the Old South Black Slaveholders

  • Section 1 Essential Questions

    Why did slavery expand in the cotton kingdom? How was the slave population distributed across the South? Why did a small number of free blacks purchase slaves?

  • Section 2: Slave Labor in AgricultureSlaves in the South55% cultivated cotton20% grew tobacco or produced sugar, rice, hemp15% domestic servants10% trades and industries

  • An engraving dating from about 1860, slaves harvest cotton under white supervision on a southern plantation.Source: The Granger Collection, NY

  • Section 2 Essential QuestionThis is a brief section create one question from the title of the section: Slave Labor in Agriculture (the next level headings were different crops) What types of crops did slaves cultivate in the South?

  • Section 3: Other Types of Slave Labor25% of all slaves did non-agricultural dutiesHouse slaves ~ elite slaves (cooks, maids, nurses, butlers, gardeners + Less physically demanding+ Better food and clothing - Grueling to work in 19th century kitchens (Belle)- Constantly under white supervision

  • Photograph by L.D. Andrew, 1936, from a vintage photograph taken ca. 1880 - Georgia)http://www.gwu.edu/~folklife/bighouse/panel9.html

  • Domestic Slave with Planter's Family," Virginia, ca. 1859-64

    http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/slavery/details.php?categorynum=9&categoryName=Domestic%20Servants%20and%20Free%20People%20of%20Color&theRecord=10&recordCount=56;

  • Section 3: Other Types of Slave LaborSkilled craftsmen ~ more elite than house slaves and included carpenters, blacksmiths, and millwrights + Could travel for supplies and gave a taste of freedom+ Could be hired out (work for $$)

  • Urban SlaveryWere the immigrants of the SouthJobs include: domestics, washwomen, stevedores, general laborers + Interacted with free black community+ Had opportunities to hire out ($$)

  • Young African-American Stevedore Loading Cotton onto a Steamboat at New Orleans, 1800shttp://www.art.com/products/p14385227-sa-i3032613/young-african-american-stevedore-loading-cotton-onto-a-steamboat-at-new-orleans-1800s.htm?sorig=0

  • Industrial SlaveryJobs included textile mills, iron working, lumber industryMost industrialist in the South hired slaves + Greater autonomy+ Could provide path to freedom

  • What type of jobs/labor was performed by the slaves in the South?

  • Why did slavery expand in the cotton kingdom? How was the slave population distributed across the South? Why did a small number of free blacks purchase slaves? What types of crops did slaves cultivate in the South? What type of jobs/labor was performed by the slaves in the South?

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