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  • 1. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION
    • HISTORY
  • METHODS OF DEALING WITH DATA
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

2. TYPES OF COMPUTERS IN HISTORY

  • Pre-mechanical computers
  • Mechanical computers
  • Electronic computers
  • Optical computers
  • Biological computers

3. Pre-mechanical computers

  • an example of a computer with no moving parts
  • transforms information about stellar and planetary positions into information about important dates and events (harvests, etc.)

Stonehenge 4. Mechanical computers

  • early designs for more traditional computers - based on mechanical techniques.

Slide rule Abacus 5. Electronic computers 6. Optical computers

  • current research in computer architecture includes much work on the design of computers which uselight beamsto perform computation; these machines should be smaller, faster and cooler than current electronic machines

7. Biological computers

  • computers based on DNA : problems are encoded on strands of DNA which are mixed in solution and react to form DNA-coded answers

8. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

9. ANALOG COMPUTER

  • Analog computers measure the continuous change in something
    • Current in a wire
    • Movement of the tide
    • Rate at which a wheel turns
  • 2. More complicated to build than digital computers
  • 3. Analog computers are very rare today

10. DIGITAL COMPUTERS

  • Use discrete numbers (whole digits) to control the electrical circuits
  • Built of switches that are either on or off
    • Can not have values in-between 0 or 1 like the analog computer
    • 1 turns the switch on
    • 0 turns the switch off
  • Almost all computers built today are digital computers

11. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

12. First Generation - Vacuum Tubes

  • 1. From 1946 to 1956
        • did from 2,000 to 16,000 additions per second
        • Had main memory 100 bytes to 2 kilobytes
      • 2. Used vacuum tubes
      • 3. Very large machines
        • special rooms to house them with air conditioning
        • specially trained technicians to run & maintain

13. Second Generation - Transistors

  • From 1959 to around 1965
  • Smaller, faster, and more reliable
    • used transistors
    • 6,000 to 3,000,000 operations/s
    • main memory 6 kilobytes to 1.3 megabytes
    • Contained in four cabinets about 6 feet high by 4 feet wide, each weighing 250 pounds
  • one-tenth the price of a 1 stGeneration
  • become common in larger businesses and universities

14. Third Generation - Integrated Circuits

  • Form 1965 to around 1972
  • Used integrated circuits many transistors on one piece of silicon
  • 3.Smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price
    • Size of a stove or refrigerator, some can fit on desktops
    • Can do 100,000 to 400,000,000 operations per second
    • Cost about one-tenth the amount of second generation computers
  • 4.Computers become very common in medium to large businesses

15. FourthGeneration- Microprocessors

  • From 1972 until now
  • Used large scale to very large scale integrated circuits
    • Put more than one IC on a silicon chip
    • Can do more than one function
  • smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price
    • Size of a television or much smaller
    • Can do 500,000 to 1,000,000,000 operations/second
    • Cost one-tenth, or less, the amount of third generation
  • very common in homes and business

16. Future Computer Generations

  • Most likely the following will happen to computer technology
    • It will become lower in price
    • Computers will become smaller and faster
    • Computers will have larger memories and more storage space
  • 2. Computers will become an integral part of everyone's life

17.

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION 18. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATION
  • MANUFACTURER
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

19. WIDELY ACCEPTED WAYS

  • SIZE (Early days): mainframe, minicomputer, microcomputer.
  • SIZE (Now): Floortop, Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop, Wearable.
  • POWER: Supercomputer, server, enterprise server (mainframe), mid-range server (minicomputer), PC.

20. PC

  • computer designed for general use by a single person.
  • PCs were first known asmicrocomputersbecause they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses.

21. DESKTOP

  • A PC that is not designed forportability.
  • you will set the computer up in a permanent location.
  • Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.

22. Laptop

  • Also callednotebooks .
  • Laptopare portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

23. Palmtop

  • More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
  • palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage.
  • usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input.
  • A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is thehandheld computer .

24. Workstation

  • A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development.

25. Server

  • A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network.
  • Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard drives.

26. Mainframe

  • In the early days of computing,mainframeswere huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor!
  • the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor ofenterprise server .
  • the term still used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.

27. Minicomputer

  • term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers).
  • Minicomputers are normally referred to asmid-range serversnow.

28. Supercomputer

  • Costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars.
  • Most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system.
  • Used for military purposes or in large companies

29. Wearable

  • The latest trend in computing
  • Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing!

Unit 1 Types Of Computers

Jan 19, 2015

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Education

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  • 1. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION
    • HISTORY
  • METHODS OF DEALING WITH DATA
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

2. TYPES OF COMPUTERS IN HISTORY

  • Pre-mechanical computers
  • Mechanical computers
  • Electronic computers
  • Optical computers
  • Biological computers

3. Pre-mechanical computers

  • an example of a computer with no moving parts
  • transforms information about stellar and planetary positions into information about important dates and events (harvests, etc.)

Stonehenge 4. Mechanical computers

  • early designs for more traditional computers - based on mechanical techniques.

Slide rule Abacus 5. Electronic computers 6. Optical computers

  • current research in computer architecture includes much work on the design of computers which uselight beamsto perform computation; these machines should be smaller, faster and cooler than current electronic machines

7. Biological computers

  • computers based on DNA : problems are encoded on strands of DNA which are mixed in solution and react to form DNA-coded answers

8. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

9. ANALOG COMPUTER

  • Analog computers measure the continuous change in something
    • Current in a wire
    • Movement of the tide
    • Rate at which a wheel turns
  • 2. More complicated to build than digital computers
  • 3. Analog computers are very rare today

10. DIGITAL COMPUTERS

  • Use discrete numbers (whole digits) to control the electrical circuits
  • Built of switches that are either on or off
    • Can not have values in-between 0 or 1 like the analog computer
    • 1 turns the switch on
    • 0 turns the switch off
  • Almost all computers built today are digital computers

11. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

12. First Generation - Vacuum Tubes

  • 1. From 1946 to 1956
        • did from 2,000 to 16,000 additions per second
        • Had main memory 100 bytes to 2 kilobytes
      • 2. Used vacuum tubes
      • 3. Very large machines
        • special rooms to house them with air conditioning
        • specially trained technicians to run & maintain

13. Second Generation - Transistors

  • From 1959 to around 1965
  • Smaller, faster, and more reliable
    • used transistors
    • 6,000 to 3,000,000 operations/s
    • main memory 6 kilobytes to 1.3 megabytes
    • Contained in four cabinets about 6 feet high by 4 feet wide, each weighing 250 pounds
  • one-tenth the price of a 1 stGeneration
  • become common in larger businesses and universities

14. Third Generation - Integrated Circuits

  • Form 1965 to around 1972
  • Used integrated circuits many transistors on one piece of silicon
  • 3.Smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price
    • Size of a stove or refrigerator, some can fit on desktops
    • Can do 100,000 to 400,000,000 operations per second
    • Cost about one-tenth the amount of second generation computers
  • 4.Computers become very common in medium to large businesses

15. FourthGeneration- Microprocessors

  • From 1972 until now
  • Used large scale to very large scale integrated circuits
    • Put more than one IC on a silicon chip
    • Can do more than one function
  • smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price
    • Size of a television or much smaller
    • Can do 500,000 to 1,000,000,000 operations/second
    • Cost one-tenth, or less, the amount of third generation
  • very common in homes and business

16. Future Computer Generations

  • Most likely the following will happen to computer technology
    • It will become lower in price
    • Computers will become smaller and faster
    • Computers will have larger memories and more storage space
  • 2. Computers will become an integral part of everyone's life

17.

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATIONS
  • MANUFACTURERS
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION 18. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

  • HISTORY
  • TWO BASIC KINDS
  • GENERATION
  • MANUFACTURER
  • WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION

19. WIDELY ACCEPTED WAYS

  • SIZE (Early days): mainframe, minicomputer, microcomputer.
  • SIZE (Now): Floortop, Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop, Wearable.
  • POWER: Supercomputer, server, enterprise server (mainframe), mid-range server (minicomputer), PC.

20. PC

  • computer designed for general use by a single person.
  • PCs were first known asmicrocomputersbecause they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses.

21. DESKTOP

  • A PC that is not designed forportability.
  • you will set the computer up in a permanent location.
  • Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.

22. Laptop

  • Also callednotebooks .
  • Laptopare portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

23. Palmtop

  • More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
  • palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage.
  • usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input.
  • A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is thehandheld computer .

24. Workstation

  • A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development.

25. Server

  • A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network.
  • Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard drives.

26. Mainframe

  • In the early days of computing,mainframeswere huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor!
  • the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor ofenterprise server .
  • the term still used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.

27. Minicomputer

  • term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers).
  • Minicomputers are normally referred to asmid-range serversnow.

28. Supercomputer

  • Costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars.
  • Most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system.
  • Used for military purposes or in large companies

29. Wearable

  • The latest trend in computing
  • Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing!