1. UNDERSTANDING CINEMA Faiqa J Dabir 2014 Indian Parallel Cinema French New Wave Italian Neorealism
2. What is Italian Neorealism? A movement of film realistically reflecting the difficult economic and moral conditions in post-WWII Italy
3. Origins of Neorealism World War Mussolini and Fascists rejected to make realism films. Did not want to show the negative side of Italian Society. (unemployment,inequality.etc)
4. Origins of Neorealism WW II destroyed Italy as economically and politically. Fascism fall off. The war destroyed studios and created economic crisis. The directors search a new method to give life to Italian Film. The inventions of technology help them to take camera and focus them to street. It destroy all other isms in cinema and created a neorealist method.
5. Origins of Neorealism 1943 End of the World War Neo-realism became the mainstream of Italian cinema and literature. response to the political turmoil and desperate economic conditions afflicting the country
6. Style and Methods of Neorealism Captured the beauty of ordinary life Open form narrative; ranges from partisan heroics to contemporary social problems The new realism included the notion of abolishing contrived plots and professional actors simple realist style films Documentary-like visual style with an avoidance of special effects or unnatural lighting The use of actual locations, especially city exteriors, rather than studio sets
7. Style and Methods of Neorealism On-location shooting Long takes Natural light Medium and long shots Working class protagonists Environment as important as actors Poverty, crime, social injustice common themes
8. Key Directors Roberto Rossellini Luchino Visconti Vittorio De Sica
9. Pinnacle of Neorealism
10. Pinnacle of Neorealism Di Sicas The Bicycle Thieves (Ladri di biciclette) of 1948 was given an honorary Academy Award in 1950. It appears on critics and directors lists as one of the most important and influential films ever made. The film placed sixth as the greatest film ever made in Sight & Sound's latest directors' poll, conducted in 2002
11. Demise or Decadence of Neorealism Postwar Italian governments did not approve of films that portrayed Italy in a negative light. A 1949 law strengthening production and exhibition of Italian films imposed censorship on scripts that slandered Italy. The following developed: Allegoric Fantasy-Miracle in Milan(1952),Desica Melodrama Film-Senso(1954) ,Luchino Visconti Pink Neo-realism-Bread, Love and Dreams(1953),Luigi Comencini
12. After effects It opened the door to filming on location rather than in a studio It showed filmmakers that movies can be used to highlight the reality of societal problems and make viewers consider social change In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, in particular, it demonstrated that you could make great films inexpensively with your own countrys landscape and peoplewithout lavish sets or expensive stars. The movement did influence the French New Wave, Hollywood and TV
13. What is a New Wave in Cinema? A New Wave is a movement in cinema which seeks to stylistically and narratively differentiate itself from the dominant paradigm of mainstream film production. Usually, the people driving the movement are young and are driven by an ideological/political imperative.
14. Origins of the French nouvelle vague Due to the Nazi occupation of France, American cinema had been banned during World War II. After the war, restrictions were lifted and Hollywood product flooded the French market. Fearing that there was little exhibition space for alternatives to Hollywood, Andre Bazin established a number of cineclubs in which he would screen non- Hollywood, non-commercial films. Other like-minded people began to do the same, and an underground movement was born. The screenings were organised and attended by people like Jean-Luc Godard and Francois Truffaut who would go on to be leading figures in the French New Wave movement.
15. Cahiers du Cinma In April 1951, the first issue of Cahiers du Cinma (Notes on Cinema) was published. CDC was headed by Bazin, Jacques Donoil-Valcroze and Joseph Marie Lo-Duca. The magazine aimed to restore French cinema to prominence, as well as to discuss all film with the same kind of intellectual context which other art forms were treated with.
16. The Directors Cinema Andre Bazin firmly believed in evaluating a film through the prism of the director. CDC constantly interviewed filmmakers, and established a canon of directors who they believed to be above the corporate machinations of studio filmmaking. These names included Jean Renoir (France), Kenji Mizoguchi (Japan) and Alfred Hitchcock (America).
17. Alexandre Astruc - Camera stylo (1948) The cinema is quite simply becoming a means of expression, just as all the arts have been before it, and in particular painting and the novel. After having been a successful fairground attraction, an amusement analogous to boulevard theatre, or a means of preserving the images of an era, it is gradually becoming a language. By language I mean a form in which and by which an artist can express his thoughts, however abstract they may be, or translate his obsessions exactly as he does in a contemporary essay or novel. That is why I would like to call this new age of cinema the age of camra-stylo.
18. The Auteur Theory Truffaut believed that too much of a premium had previously been placed on the screenwriter, rather than the filmmaker. He proposed la politique des Auteurs, which valued a directors personal stylistic and narrative contributions to a film over all else. Filmmakers who achieved this were auteurs, and those who adhered to generic conventions were labelled as metteur un scene literally, a stage setter. This was a hugely influential mode of thought. Bazin, on the other hand, surprisingly attacked Truffaut for ignoring the historical, social and industrial factors involved in film production and for simplistically assuming that a director alone was responsible for a film.
19. The Auteur Theory and The nouvelle vague When Truffaut turned to filmmaking, he naturally tried to make his films as personal/auterist as possible. Other contemporaries followed suit, and this loose movement become what is now known as the nouvelle vague. These films were shot by groups of friends on a low- budget using newly available, cheaper cameras. Truffaut defined the members as sharing nothing in common but their rejection of the excess of mainstream cinema.
20. Key Directors Francois Truffaut Jean-Luc Godard Jacques Rivette Claude Chabrol Eric Rohmer
21. Stylistic Tendencies A general disregard for many (but not all) of the principles of continuity editing. The films featured techniques such as: Jump cuts rather than eyeline matches Breaking the 180 degree rule A heavy reliance on lighter, handheld cameras rather than staged, static shots Extreme