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Nov 19, 2014
4. TYPES OF TRANSLATION
ASPECTSa) historical aspects: oral vs. written vs. mechanical
significance / historical role of TR - contribution to & impact on:
development an growth of human culture (trade, preachers, military exchanges, diplomatic affairs, transfer of artefacts) civilisation individual languages
b) TYPES: literary vs. non-literary c) METHODS of ORAL TR: simultaneous vs. consecutive d) FORM: oral (always non-literary) vs. written e) medium in which TR is performed: mechanical & computer-aided vs. human
The role of the Translator
TLR as a linguistic person (knowledge, spatio-temporal restrictions) Sender, TLR, Receiver as linguistic persons in the communicative act TLR as a linguistic person in the communicative act:
change as much as necessary - BUT as little as possible
MECHANICAL / MACHINE TR (MT)
always written and non-literary 50's & 60's cold war (US/Russia) ASSUMPTION:
computer - programmed to decode (SL) & encode (TL) !!!? equivalence between SL and TL (one-to-one correspondence)
1980-ies: initial success and promises (large investments - projects) human TLR - more efficient
Machine translation (MT) Wikip.
a procedure whereby a computer program analyses a source text and produces a target text without further human intervention. however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing an exception to that rule:
e.g., the translation of technical specifications (strings of technical terms and adjectives), using a dictionary-based machine-translation system.
In regard to texts (e.g., weather reports) with limited ranges of vocabulary and simple sentence structure, machine translation can deliver results that do not require much human intervention to be useful. Also, the use of a controlled language, combined with a machine-translation tool, will typically generate largely comprehensible translations (AirSpeak)
Relying on machine translation exclusively ignores the fact that
communication in human language is contextembedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability.
even purely human-generated translations are prone to error.
such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human
To date, machine translation a major goal of naturallanguage processing has met with limited success.  Machine translation has been brought to a large public by tools available on the Internet, such as AltaVista's Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict, Systran, Trados. These tools produce a "gisting translation" a rough translation that "gives the gist" of the source text. With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with re-working of the machine translation by a professional human translator (post-editing), commercial machinetranslation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system. 
Machine translation (MT)
a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. At its basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another. Using corpus techniques, more complex translations may be attempted, allowing for better handling of differences in linguistic typology, phrase recognition, and translation of idioms, as well as the isolation of anomalies. Current machine translation software often allows for customisation by domain (filters: field, subject matter)
Current machine translation software often allows for customisation by profession (such as weather reports) improving output by limiting the scope of allowable substitutions.
particularly effective in domains where formal or formulaic language is used i.e. machine translation of government and legal documents more readily produces usable output than conversation or less standardised text
MT - HAMT
Improved output quality can also be achieved by human intervention:
E.g. some systems are able to translate more accurately if the user has unambiguously identified which words in the text are names.
With the assistance of these techniques, MT has proven useful as a tool to assist human translators, and in some cases can even produce output that can be used "as is". However, current systems are unable to produce output of the same quality as a human translator, particularly where the text to be translated uses casual language
FAILURE of MT (?)
computers are not human beings - THE NATURE OF TR. (AND HUMAN LANGUAGE) IS NOT AN ALGORITHMIC PROCESS:, esp.:
1. polysemy - on the lexical level 2. connotations, pragmatics etc. (sije anj - januar) 3. unable to account for changes in word order (syntax)
90's - in spite of taggers and parsers & semantic programs/ MT (translators) (whole blocks of language - now algorithmically available for TR UNABLE translate literary texts (esp. poetry)
USAGE / ADVANTAGE of MT today:
pre-translation procedure (computer-aided TR) raw material for human refinement even: voice recognition - automated transcripts of human speech restricted texts: institutional, legal, specific technical (operational / maintenance) instructions; scientific abstracts, etc. TR tools (dictionaries, glossaries, lexical & textual databases, wordnet, www) corpus linguistics etc.: COBUILD, BNC, Brown, LOB, etc.
SIGNIFICANCE of MT
though practically still unusable (except in restricted languages) MT important for the theory of TR: investigation of basic relationships in the process of TR algorithmic rigour of MT - clear linguistic descriptions investigation of cognitive processes and the process of human TR (brain) computers useful in helping humans (speed) in the translation activity rather than in translation itself
very common and ever-present human activity interest in the nature of the process of TR what happens in the translator's brain (Thinkaloud protocols, Translog) assessment of the product of TR, criticism human brain - inaccessible for investigation (psycholinguistics) - only results are accessible and available for research - indirect conclusions for teaching purposes
Types of TranslationTRANSLATION
Types of TranslationHUMAN
Audiovisual Translation (AVT)
an exciting new field in translation a growing professional demand dubbing and voice-over surtitling and subtitlinghttp://ics.leeds.ac.uk/papers/llp/exhibits/16/IntroAVTranslation_Adriana_S erban.ppt#257,2,Talk map
Audiovisual translation (AVT) - subtitling and dubbing:
one of the commonest forms of translation encountered in everyday life in contemporary societies
of the 8,108 hours of programming broadcast by the Finnish broadcasting company YLE in 1996, 48% consisted of foreign-language programmes (including re-runs) (Kontula, Larma and Petinen 1997:52-53).
The visibility of AVT is probably one reason why AVT also lends itself to easy and occasionally sharp criticism among viewers "subtitles offer the pretext for a linguistic game of 'spot the error'" for those viewers who have a command of both (Shochat and Stam 1985:46) Internet sites devoted to listing subtitling gaffes, e,g, Turun Sanomat 5.7.1998
It is interesting that in a sense AVT has been a channel for venting ideas on linguistic purism for quite a long while E.g.: an angry viewer had written to the editor complaining about the quality of a subtitling in a film. (Paunonen 1996:549):
he demanded that distributors should take action to improve the quality of translations, or else censorship should intervene.
Types of Translationtranslation
Language interpreting or interpretation
the intellectual activity of facilitating oral and sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between two, or among three or more, speakers who neither speak nor sign the same source language. Functionally, interpreting and interpretation are the descriptive words for the activity;
Functionally, an interpreter orally translates a source language to a target language; likewise in sign language The interpreter's function is conveying every semantic element (tone and register) and every intention and feeling of the message that the sourcelanguage speaker is directing to the target-language listeners
Types of TranslationMECHANICAL
Types of Translation
Computer-assisted translationComputer-assisted translation (CAT), also called computer-aided translation or machine-aided human translation (MAHT), is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator. Computer-assisted translation can include standard dictionary and grammar software. The term, however, normally refers to a range of specialized programs available to the translator, including translation-memory, terminologymanagement, concordance, and alignm