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Types of Computers Super Computers Super Computers Mainframes Mainframes Mini Computers Mini Computers Micro Computers Micro Computers

Dec 16, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Types of Computers Super Computers Super Computers Mainframes Mainframes Mini Computers Mini Computers Micro Computers Micro Computers
  • Slide 2
  • The Computer System Hardware Hardware Software Software Users Users Data Data
  • Slide 3
  • Communication Devices Central Processing Unit Output Devices Printers, Video Display terminals, Plotters, Audio Output BusesPrimary Storage Secondary Storage Magnetic Disk, Optical disk, Magnetic Tape Input devices Keyboard, mouse, touch screen, source data automation Hardware Components of A computer
  • Slide 4
  • Processing Sequential Processing Sequential Processing Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) Faster Faster Conventionally Complex Instruction Set Computing Conventionally Complex Instruction Set Computing Parallel Processing Parallel Processing Multiple CPUs Break a problem into several smaller problems and work simultaneously Multiple CPUs Break a problem into several smaller problems and work simultaneously Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) 100s or 1000s o chips to break problem into smaller processes 100s or 1000s o chips to break problem into smaller processes Moving Beyond Cluster Computing
  • Slide 5
  • SEQUENTIAL PROCESSING PARALLEL PROCESSING Program CPU task1 CPU task2 CPU task3 CPU task4 CPU task5 RESULT Program CPU RESULT
  • Slide 6
  • Introduction To Personal Computing The Processor
  • Slide 7
  • Looking Inside the Machine - The CPU The procedure that transforms raw data into useful information is called processing. This function is divided between the computer's processor and memory. The processor is also called the central processing unit (CPU). It manages all devices and performs the actual processing of data. The CPU consists of one or more chips attached to the computer's main circuit board (the motherboard).
  • Slide 8
  • The Central Processing Unit Primary Memory Input Secondary Storage Output Communication Devices registers Control UnitALU
  • Slide 9
  • Dual Core Processors A dual core processor is a CPU with two separate cores, each with its own cache. It's the equivalent of getting two microprocessors in one. A dual core processor is a CPU with two separate cores, each with its own cache. It's the equivalent of getting two microprocessors in one.dual coreCPUdual coreCPU In a single-core or traditional processor the CPU is fed instructions, it must order, execute, then selectively store in its cache for quick retrieval. When data outside the cache is required, it is retrieved through the system bus from random access memory (RAM) or from storage devices. Accessing these slows down performance to the maximum speed the bus, RAM or storage device will allow, which is far slower than the speed of the CPU. The situation is compounded when multi-tasking. In this case the processor must switch back and forth between two or more sets of data streams and programs. CPU resources are depleted and performance suffers. In a single-core or traditional processor the CPU is fed instructions, it must order, execute, then selectively store in its cache for quick retrieval. When data outside the cache is required, it is retrieved through the system bus from random access memory (RAM) or from storage devices. Accessing these slows down performance to the maximum speed the bus, RAM or storage device will allow, which is far slower than the speed of the CPU. The situation is compounded when multi-tasking. In this case the processor must switch back and forth between two or more sets of data streams and programs. CPU resources are depleted and performance suffers. random access memory random access memory In a dual core processor each core handles incoming data simultaneously to improve efficiency. Just as two heads are better than one, so are two hands. Now when one is executing the other can be accessing the system bus or executing its own code. Adding to this favorable scenario, both AMD and Intel's dual-core flagships are 64-bit. In a dual core processor each core handles incoming data simultaneously to improve efficiency. Just as two heads are better than one, so are two hands. Now when one is executing the other can be accessing the system bus or executing its own code. Adding to this favorable scenario, both AMD and Intel's dual-core flagships are 64-bit.
  • Slide 10
  • To utilize a dual core processor, the operating system must be able to recognize the cores and the software must have simultaneous multi-threading technology (SMT) written into its code. SMT enables parallel multi-threading wherein the cores are served multi-threaded instructions in parallel. Without SMT the software will only recognize one core. Adobe Photoshop is an example of SMT-aware software. SMT is also used with multi-processor systems common to servers. To utilize a dual core processor, the operating system must be able to recognize the cores and the software must have simultaneous multi-threading technology (SMT) written into its code. SMT enables parallel multi-threading wherein the cores are served multi-threaded instructions in parallel. Without SMT the software will only recognize one core. Adobe Photoshop is an example of SMT-aware software. SMT is also used with multi-processor systems common to servers.operating system softwareoperating system software A dual core processor is different from a multi-processor system. In the latter there are two separate CPUs with their own resources. In the former, resources are shared and the cores reside on the same chip. A multi-processor system is faster than a system with a dual core processor, while a dual core system is faster than a single-core system, all else being equal. A dual core processor is different from a multi-processor system. In the latter there are two separate CPUs with their own resources. In the former, resources are shared and the cores reside on the same chip. A multi-processor system is faster than a system with a dual core processor, while a dual core system is faster than a single-core system, all else being equal. An attractive value of dual core processors is that they do not require a new motherboard, but can be used in existing boards that feature the correct socket. For the average user the difference in performance will be most noticeable in multi-tasking until more software is SMT aware. Servers running multiple dual core processors will see an appreciable increase in performance. An attractive value of dual core processors is that they do not require a new motherboard, but can be used in existing boards that feature the correct socket. For the average user the difference in performance will be most noticeable in multi-tasking until more software is SMT aware. Servers running multiple dual core processors will see an appreciable increase in performance.motherboard Multi-core processors are the goal and as technology shrinks, there is more "real-estate" available on the die. In the fall of 2004 Bill Siu of Intel predicted that current accommodating motherboards would be here to stay until 4-core CPUs eventually force a changeover to incorporate a new memory controller that will be required for handling 4 or more cores. Multi-core processors are the goal and as technology shrinks, there is more "real-estate" available on the die. In the fall of 2004 Bill Siu of Intel predicted that current accommodating motherboards would be here to stay until 4-core CPUs eventually force a changeover to incorporate a new memory controller that will be required for handling 4 or more cores. motherboards
  • Slide 11
  • . Taking Advantage of Dual-core Technology A dual-core processor has many advantages especially for those looking to boost their system's multitasking computing power. Dual-core processors provide two complete execution cores instead of one, each with an independent interface to the frontside bus. Since each core has its own cache, the operating system has sufficient resources to handle intensive tasks in parallel, which provides a noticeable improvement to multitasking. Complete optimization for the dual- core processor requires both the operating system and applications running on the computer to support a technology called thread-level parallelism, or TLP. Thread-level parallelism is the part of the OS or application that runs multiple threads simultaneously, where threads refer to the part of a program that can execute independently of other parts. Key Terms To Understanding Dual- core dual-core Dual-core refers to a CPU that includes two complete execution cores per physical processor.. Taking Advantage of Dual-core Technology A dual-core processor has many advantages especially for those looking to boost their system's multitasking computing power. Dual-core processors provide two complete execution cores instead of one, each with an independent interface to the frontside bus. Since each core has its own cache, the operating system has sufficient resources to handle intensive tasks in parallel, which provides a noticeable improvement to multitasking. Complete optimization for the dual- core processor requires both the operating system and applications running on the computer to support a technology called thread-level parallelism, or TLP. Thread-level parallelism is the part of the OS or application that runs multiple threads simultaneously, where threads refer to the part of a program that can execute independently of other parts. Key Terms To Understanding Dual- core dual-core Dual-core refers to a CPU that includes two complete execution cores per physical processor. coresfrontside busoperating