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Dec 29, 2015
Trip around the WorldCharles Darwin
Trip Around the WorldIn December 1831, the British ship HMS Beagle set sail from England on a five-year trip around the world.On board was a 22 year old named Charles Darwin.Darwin was able to explore extensively in South America and numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean, including the Galapagos.While he was on the Galapagos Islands he came up with the theory of Natural Selection.A process in which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than others of the same species
Trip around the WorldThis is the five year route that Charles Darwin traveled while on the HMS Beagle
Galapagos IslandsThe islands are about 580 miles away from the coast of Ecuador.
Galapagos IslandsDarwin compared the organisms from the Galapagos Islands to the organisms from the mainland in South America.He noticed that many of the plants were similar but there were some important differences.Galapagos iguanas vs. mainland iguanasDifferences between the islands in the Galapagos Islands.Dome-shaped tortoises vs. saddle shaped tortoisesFinches beak shape
AdaptationsThe finches were well suited for the life it led.Short narrow beaks were better suited for eating bugs.Large strong beaks were for eating seeds.Beak shape is an example of an adaptation.
AdaptationsAdaptations is a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.Some examples of an adaptation are:Fur (or lack of fur)SizeCamouflageBehaviorFlight (wings)Teeth (sharp or dull)
AdaptationsEvery animal has developed special characteristics that customize the animal to its environment.Over a period of generations, animals develop behaviors and physical characteristics that enhance their survival in their environment.All species are adapted to their environment.Animals also have physical adaptations to help them survive. This helps them maintain a constant internal environment (their body) while their outside environment is changing.This is called homeostasis.
HomeostasisHuman example of homeostasisWhen you are hot, you sweat. Sweating cools your body down.When you are cold, you shiver. When you shiver your muscles rapidly contract and relax which produces heat.Some environments undergo extreme changes in temperature or other conditions during the year. Living things that live in such conditions have special responses that help them adjust.
Behavioral and Physical Adaptations in AnimalsAdaptations
AdaptationsAdaptations is a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.There are behavioral adaptations.MigrationsHibernationDormancy There are physical adaptations.
MigrationMigration- when animals move from one place to another as a result of temperature changes.Animals migrate for different reasons: To find a better climate (better weather).To find food.To find a safe place to live.To find a safe place to raise young.Species that do migrate are called migratory species.Species that do not migrate are called resident, or sedentary species.
MigrationThe advantage of the migration strategy are:In the long days of the northern summer, breeding birds have more hours to feed their young .As the days shorten in the fall and food supplies become scarce, the birds can migrate to warmer regions where the length of the day varies less and there is an all year round food supply.
Who migrates the furthestThe Arctic Tern, it flies from its Arctic breeding grounds to the Antarctic and back again each year. This guarantees that it will see two summers each year.
MigrationNot all animals will move thousands of miles to migrate. Some species of sheep and goats will move from higher altitudes of mountains to lower ones seasonally. 3
HibernationHibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate.Hibernation allows animals to conserve energy during the winter when food is short.Before entering hibernation most species eat a large amount of food and store energy in fat deposits in order to survive the winter. Hibernation may last several days, or weeks depending on species, outside temperature, and time of year.
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HibernationThere are different kinds of hibernation. The "true" hibernators sleep so deeply that they are almost impossible to wake up. Woodchucks, ground squirrels and bats are "true" hibernators. True hibernators do get up every few weeks to nibble on food.Bears are not "true" hibernators. They are one of the "light sleepers." They are easily awakened from their winter slumbers. These in-between hibernators are simply taking long winter naps. Skunks, raccoons, opossums are also in this group. 7
HibernationAnother form of hibernation is called torpor.Torpor is a state of regulated hypothermia in a warm blooded organism, lasting just a few hours, usually at night.Torpor is a shortened sleep time. The heart rate slows down and body temperature goes down, but the animal is able to wake up and move around. Torpor is used for many of the same reasons as hibernation, like energy conservation.
Dormancy Dormancy is a period when an organisms growth or activity stops.It is a survival strategy exhibited by many plant species, which enables them to survive in climates where part of the year is unsuitable for growth, such as winter or dry seasons.Many familiar trees produce new leaves in the spring and lose them in the fall due to seasonal changes in temperature and light. Trees that lose their leaves are dormant in winter.
Physical AdaptationsAnimals also depend on their physical features to help:Obtain foodKeep safeBuild homesWithstand weatherAttract matesThese physical features are called physical adaptations. Physical adaptations do not develop during an animal's life but over many generations.
Physical AdaptationsExamples of the basic adaptations that help creatures survive:Shape of a bird's beak The number of fingers The thickness or thinness of the fur Shape of the nose or earsTeethClawsFeetProtective Coloration (Camouflage)
Protective ColorationProtective coloration helps an animal survive in its environment. Four examples are:Concealing coloration is when animals use the same coloring as their environment. Disruptive coloration is when animals break up their outline so they do not stick out. Disguise is when animals blend in with their surroundings. Mimicry is when animals look like other dangerous animals. They pretend to be what they are not.
Concealing ColorationFor example, many animals in the Arctic have white coloring to blend in with the snow that surrounds them.14
Disruptive colorationThese animals have spots, stripes, or other patterns to break up its outline so it doesn't stick out against the background. Animals like zebras, leopards, and tigers use this type of camouflage.15
DisguiseAn insect that looks like a branch or leaf is using a costume to hide from predators. If it actually looks like the object on which it stays, then it is using disguise to fool its predators or prey.16
MimicryWhen animals look like other dangerous animals. They pretend to be what they are not.17
*A process in which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than others of the same species*Phoenix to Salt Lake City*Galapagos iguanas had larger claws to hold on to slippery rocks to feed on seaweed, mainland iguanas had smaller claws so they can climb trees*salmon, humpback whales, Canada geese, monarch butterflies
*Who migrates the furthest? Land animal, sea animal, or bird?
*One way is 12000, round trip is 24000 miles. The average Arctic Tern in its life will travel a distance equal to going to the moon and backabout 500,000miles*Warm and cold blooded animals*A woodchuck's heart rate goes from 80 beats a minute when active to 4 or 5 beats a minute when in hibernation. Its body temperature drops from 98 degrees Fahrenheit to 38 degrees Fahrenheit. during hibernation.
These animals breathe a little more slowly and lower their body temperature a few degrees while sleeping, but they wake up to forage between winter snows.
*Sixty-seven percent of the frog's body freezes hard but not inside the cells. As the frog slowly freezes over several hours, he pumps large amounts of glucose anti-freeze into his cells. Gradually he stops breathing, his heart stops, his brain activity ceases but his cells don't freeze. He stays this way for two or three months. Come spring, when the land thaws, so does his body. Within an hour or two "the Frog will recover his Summer Activity, and leap as usual,"*