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Jan 13, 2016
Trends in Storage Subsystem TechnologiesMichael Joyce, Senior Director Mylex & OEM Storage SubsystemsIBM
The Drive Interface Progression19961998200020022004Ultra640SCSI640 MB/sUltraSCSIUltra2SCSIUltra160SCSIUltra320SCSI40 MB/s80 MB/s160 MB/s320 MB/sParallel SCSIFibre Channel Arbitrated Loop640 MB/sUltraSCSIUltra2SCSIUltra160SCSIUltra320SCSI40 MB/s80 MB/s100 MB/s320 MB/s200 MB/s400 MB/s
System Interface Progression19961998200020022004533 MB/s2 GB/s133 MB/s266 MB/s1 GB/sPCI/ PCI-X32-bit33 MHz64-bit33 MHz64-bit66 MHz64-bit133 MHz64-bit266 MHzFibre Channel1 Gb/s2 Gb/s10 Gb/s
Multi-Node SANN-Node, Switched Fibre, N-RAID Controllers, FC SwitchRAID CtlrPort 0
RAID CtlrPort 0Port 1
FC HBARAID CtlrPort 0
RAID CtlrPort 0
FC HBAFC HBAFC HBA
Early IB Deployment:First-order Network FocusCharacteristicsIB used mainly to get I/O out of 1U front-end servers.High-end servers may not have IB linksSANs and LANs co-exist with IBIB-to-FC and IB-to-Ethernet bridges to interconnect IB to SANs and LANs...Front-end/ Web ServersHigh-end ServersRAID SubsystemsIB Switch
Initial iSCSI DeploymentUntil security and traffic/ usage perceptions are overcome, iSCSI SANsand LANs/ WANs will be distinct networks.
Trend Towards Fabric InterconnectsGet off the Bus - Get on the Fabric!Gigabit speeds and shrinking device geometries make it difficult to sustain buses.Point-to-point interconnects gaining ground.Within storage controllers, the current interconnect continues to be PCI/ PCI-XBut, competing technologies are appearing ...RapidIO, HyperTransport (AMD), 3GIO (Intel)
Divergence in Interconnect TechnologiesHistorically, storage subsystems have presented disk-drive like interfaces to the host.SCSI, Fibre ChannelMoving forward, system interconnects are becoming fabric oriented to address distance, reliability, manageability and other issues.InfiniBand, iSCSI, 10 Gb Fibre Channel
DivergenceOn next Fibre Channel progression, interfaces diverge.10 Gb for system, 4 Gb for drivesSerial ATA emerges as a viable drive interface for desktops and storage subsystems.
RAID/ Storage controllers facilitate divergence between system and drive interfaces.
Lead to Integrated RAIDLocal Bus)Peripheral BusCPUCoreStorageProtocolI/FUARTI2CGPIOGPT
RAID TeamingDual or Multiple PCI RAID Controllers plugged in the same system, share the same backend disk devices (through SCSI or FC drive enclosure(s)). Terminator Switch (SCSI) or FC HubDisk Drives (JBOD)Dual ported Enclosure (SCSI or FC)Dual PCI RAID ControllersHost System
FlashCopyBackground CopyWriteWriteReadReadSource Logical DriveTarget Logical Drive
In SummarySerial ATA emerges as a common interface for desktop and server class drives.System interconnects move towards iSCSI and InfiniBand with iSCSI appearing to be gaining momentum.System-on-chip trends will drive towards integrated RAID devices, especially at the low end.RAID functionality enhancements will continue providing increased data availability, mobility, and manageability