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Nabeel Kouka, MD, DO, MBA Nabeel Kouka, MD, DO, MBA www.brain101.info www.brain101.info Traumatic Brain Traumatic Brain Injury Injury TBI TBI
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Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Apr 16, 2017

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Page 1: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Nabeel Kouka, MD, DO, MBANabeel Kouka, MD, DO, MBA

www.brain101.infowww.brain101.info

Traumatic Traumatic Brain InjuryBrain Injury

TBITBI

Page 2: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Brain InjuriesBrain Injuries

Congenital brain injury

Pre-birth During birth

Acquired Brain Injury

After birth process

Traumatic Brain Injury(external physical force)

Closed Head Injury

Open Head

Injury

Non-traumatic Brain Injury

Page 3: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

What is a TBI?What is a TBI?

Sudden damage to the brain due to an external Sudden damage to the brain due to an external force.force.

2 Types2 Types• Closed Head Injury- Occurs when the head Closed Head Injury- Occurs when the head

forcefully collides with another object (for forcefully collides with another object (for example the windshield of a car) but doesn't example the windshield of a car) but doesn't fracture or penetrate the skull. fracture or penetrate the skull.

• Open Head Injury- Occurs when an object (for Open Head Injury- Occurs when an object (for example a bullet) fractures the skull and example a bullet) fractures the skull and debris enters the brain and rips the soft brain debris enters the brain and rips the soft brain tissue in its path.tissue in its path.

Page 4: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

EpidemiologyEpidemiologyPercentage of Average Annual Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Emergency Percentage of Average Annual Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Emergency

Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, by External Cause, United States, Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, by External Cause, United States, 1995-20011995-2001

Falls, 28%

Motor Vehicle-Traffic, 20%

Struck By/Against, 19%

Assault, 11%

Unknown, 9%

Other, 7%

Pedal Cycle (non MV), 3%

Suicide, 1%

Other Transport, 2%

Page 5: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

National Prevalence Rates of National Prevalence Rates of Various DisabilitiesVarious Disabilities

500,000 with Cerebral Palsy

2 million Americans with Epilepsy

3 million with Stroke disabilities

4 million with Alzheimer’s Disease

5 million with persistent mental illness

7.3 million Americans with mental retardation

400,000 w/ Spinal Cord Injuries

5.3 million with TBI disability

Page 6: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

TBI in the United States (by TBI in the United States (by Cause)Cause)

20%

11%

28%

Motor Vehicle- Traffic

Falls

Assault

Other

Unknown

9%

32%

Page 7: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Two types of TBITwo types of TBI

OPEN-HEAD INJURY (penetrating)

Example:

• Skull fracture that penetrates the brain

• Gunshot wound

CLOSED-HEAD INJURY

Example:

• Coup-Contra Coup

• Diffuse axonal injury

Page 8: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Two Classes of Brain Two Classes of Brain InjuryInjury

• PRIMARYTHE INJURY IS MORE OR LESS COMPLETE AT THE TIME OF IMPACT

1. SKULL FRACTURE

2. CONTUSION/ BRUISING OF THE BRAIN

3. HEMATOMA/BLOOD CLOT ON THE BRAIN

4. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY

• SECONDARYTHE INJURY EVOLVES OVER A PERIOD OF HOURS TO DAYS AFTER THE INITIAL TRAUMA

1. BRAIN SWELLING/EDEMA2. INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE3. INTRACRANIAL INFECTION4. EPILEPSY5. HYPOXEMIA (LOW BLOOD OXYGEN)6. HIGH OR LOW BLOOD PRESSURE7. ANOXIA/HYPOXIA (LACK OF OXYGEN TO

THE BRAIN)

Page 9: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

TBI Severity LevelsTBI Severity Levels

• Mild- Only when there is a change in the mental status at the time of the injury; concussion.

• Moderate- Loss of consciousness last for minutes to hours; confused for days or weeks. Impairments can be temporary or permanent.

• Severe- Unconscious state for days, weeks, or months. Impairments are permanent.

Page 10: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

TBI in children TBI in children

can be especially devastating, can be especially devastating,

as a child’s brain is in an almost constant as a child’s brain is in an almost constant state of development.state of development.

Page 11: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Brain Rates of DevelopmentBrain Rates of Development

5 Distinct Periods of Maturation

P - O parietal/ occipital

C central (limbic & brainstem)

T temporal

F - T frontal/ temporal

P-O

C

T

F-T

P-O

C

F-TP-O

T C F-T

Page 12: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Numerical DataNumerical Data

Number of neuronal cells in cerebral cortexNumber of neuronal cells in cerebral cortex

neurons ----------- neurons ----------- 10-15 billion10-15 billion glial cells ----------glial cells ---------- 50 billion50 billion

Estimation of number of cortical neuronsEstimation of number of cortical neurons von Economo and Koskinas (1925) von Economo and Koskinas (1925) 14.0 billion 14.0 billion Shariff (1953)Shariff (1953) 6.9 billion 6.9 billion Sholl (1956)Sholl (1956) 5.0 billion 5.0 billion Pakkenberg (1966)Pakkenberg (1966) 2.6 billion 2.6 billion

CerebralCerebral CortexCortex

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Page 14: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI
Page 15: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Normal Brain CT ScanNormal Brain CT Scan

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Brain ConcussionBrain Concussion

• Impaired function (varying time frame)

• No structural damage to speak of directly

• Can lead to degradation over time

• Extreme variance in severity– LOC

• Diffuse

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Brain ConcussionBrain Concussion

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Brain ContusionBrain Contusion

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Contusion w/Contra-Coup Contusion w/Contra-Coup InjuryInjury

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Diffuse Axonal InjuryDiffuse Axonal Injury

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Intraventricular HaemorrhageIntraventricular Haemorrhage

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Intraventricular HaemorrhageIntraventricular Haemorrhage

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Page 24: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Brainstem HaemorrhageBrainstem Haemorrhage

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Subarachnoid HemorrhageSubarachnoid Hemorrhage

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a. Subarachnoid Hemorrhagea. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage b. Transtentorial herniationb. Transtentorial herniation

c. Intraventricular hemorrhagec. Intraventricular hemorrhage e. Diffuse axonal (shearing) e. Diffuse axonal (shearing) injuryinjury

Page 26: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Intracranial HaematomasIntracranial Haematomas

• EpiduralEpidural– arterial bleedingarterial bleeding– quick onsetquick onset– less commonless common

• SubduralSubdural– venous bleedingvenous bleeding– wide range of onset timewide range of onset time

– can build on each other without symptomscan build on each other without symptoms

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Acute Subdural HaematomaAcute Subdural Haematoma

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Acute Subdural Haematoma Acute Subdural Haematoma w/Midline Shiftw/Midline Shift

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Chronic Subdural HaematomaChronic Subdural Haematoma

* Heterogeneous mass

a. Focal convexity of medial margin

b. Dilated Ipsilateral Ventricle

c. Midline Shift

d. Diffuse Brain Edema

e. Scalp Hematoma

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Acute Epidural HaematomaAcute Epidural Haematoma

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ManagementManagementThe specific goals in the acute management of The specific goals in the acute management of severe traumatic brain injury are:severe traumatic brain injury are:

1. Protect the airway & oxygenation2. Ventilate to normocapnia3. Correct hypovolaemia & hypotension 4. CT Scan when appropriate5. Neurosurgery if indicated6. Intensive Care for further monitoring and management

Page 32: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Significant Head InjuriesSignificant Head Injuries

• Signs of increased intercranial pressureSigns of increased intercranial pressure– Visual difficultiesVisual difficulties

– VomitingVomiting

– DyspneaDyspnea

– Decreased pulseDecreased pulse

Page 33: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI
Page 34: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Glascow Coma ScaleGlascow Coma Scale

Page 35: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Intracranial Pressure (ICP)Intracranial Pressure (ICP)

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CPP = MAP - ICPCPP = MAP - ICP

CPP: Cerebral Perfusion PressureCPP: Cerebral Perfusion Pressure

MAP: Mean Arterial PressureMAP: Mean Arterial Pressure

ICP: Intracranial PresureICP: Intracranial Presure

v.Intracranial (constant) = v.Brain + v.CSF + v.Blood + v.Mass Lesionv.Intracranial (constant) = v.Brain + v.CSF + v.Blood + v.Mass Lesion

Page 36: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Indications for ICP MonitoringIndications for ICP Monitoring

Indications for ICP monitoring Risk of raised ICPSevere Head Injury (GCS 3-8)* Abnormal CT scan 50-60%* Normal CT Scan Age > 40 or BP < 90 mm Hg 50-60% or abnormal motor posturing* Normal CT scan 13% No risk factorsModerate Head Injury (GCS 9-12)* If anaesthetised/sedated Approx. 10-20% will deteriorate* Abnormal CT scan to severe head injuryMild Head Injury (GCS 13-15)* Few indications for ICP measurement Only around 3% will deteriorate

Page 37: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

Key RecommendationsKey Recommendations

Maintenance of CPPCPP reduces mortality in severe head injury.

• ICPICP monitoring is recommended in most comatose patients

with severe head injury.

• ICPICP should be treated when > 20 mm Hg> 20 mm Hg, but maintenance

of CPPCPP is probably more important.

Page 38: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

How Brain Injuries How Brain Injuries treated?treated?

Page 39: Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI

How Brain Injuries How Brain Injuries treated?treated?