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TQM Overview

Apr 05, 2018

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    Quality Way

    DMR PandaPMI

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    Employees/Aircraft Passenger/EmplIndia 664 153

    gapore airlines 341 441France 277 426irates 267 703ish Airway 227 573thansa 185 714ted Air lines 174 953anese Airlines 146 1589

    ustry Average 162 986

    Source : BW, December 9, 2002

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    Why Quality Revolution?

    Survival Survival

    You may thinking that you are onYou may thinking that you are ona right track, but if you keep ona right track, but if you keep onsitting there some one will oversitting there some one will over

    run you.run you. A Japanese saying

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    ACHIEVING EXCELLENCE

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    History of quality

    1450 BC Egypt:1450 BC Egypt: PyramidsPyramids

    1750 France:1750 France: Interchangeability ConceptInterchangeability Concept

    Upto 1950:Upto 1950: Quality by InspectionQuality by Inspection

    1950 65 :1950 65 : Quality assuranceQuality assurance

    1965-80:1965-80: Total Quality ControlTotal Quality Control

    Beyond 1980s:Beyond 1980s: Total Quality ManagementTotal Quality Management

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    What is quality ?

    Quality should be aimed at the needs of theconsumer, present and future- Deming

    Absenteeism is a function of Poormanagement; if people feel important to a

    job, they will come to work Deming

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    What is quality ?

    Fitness for purpose or use Juran

    Quality doesnt happen by accident; ithas to be planned Juran

    Defects are Gold in the Mine- Juran

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    What is quality ?

    Conformance to requirements Crosby

    Quality is free - Crosby

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    The total composite product and servicecharacteristics of marketing, engineering,manufacture and maintenance throughwhich the product and service in use willmeet the expectation by the customer

    Feigenbaum

    The Hidden factory-loss to the tune of 40% by not getting it right the first time.

    Feigenbaum

    What is quality ?

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    The totality of features and

    characteristics of a product orservice the bear on its ability tosatisfy stated or implied needs

    BS 4778, (ISO 8402, 1986) Quality Vocabulary:Part 1

    International Terms

    What is quality ?

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    Quality is Fully meeting agreed requirement

    of internal and external customersat a specific cost,

    every time,

    all the time.

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    Basics of TQM

    TQM

    Customers delight

    ContinuousImprovement

    Participationby all

    ContinuousImprovement-CI is a activelypromoted andencouraged.

    Contribution &Participation ispromoted,supportedrecognized and

    rewarded

    Customer First Thinkingfor customer before anyaction in the organization

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    Cause & Effect Diagram for Japanese Products

    PoorQuality of

    JapaneseProducts

    Materials Machine

    Methods Man

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    TQM by JUSE (1998)

    TQM is a set of systematic activities carried out by the entire organization to effectively and efficiently achievecompany objectives so as to provide

    products and services with a level of quality that satisfies customers at theappropriate time and price

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    What TQM Implies?

    TOTAL QUALITY

    Participationby allEmployees,in allDepartments,at all

    Levels

    Using theprocess of build-maintain-improve Quality,thinking in &practicing the

    Quality Way

    Achieving:

    P: PRODUCTIVITY

    Q: QUALITY

    C: COST

    D: DELIVERYS: SAFETY

    M: MORALE

    MANAGEMENT

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    Typical TQM Model

    Business Excellence,BSC

    Six Sigma, TPM, Benchmarking,ISO

    STRATEGIC

    OPERATIONAL

    PEOPLE INVOLVEMENTKAIZEN

    [Quality Circle,Suggestion system, 5 S

    ]

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    I MPRO VEME N T

    TIME

    KAIFU

    KAIZEN

    KAIRO

    ISO system

    DRAM

    ISO system

    Lean EnterpriseBusiness process re-engineering {BPR}Six sigma

    C o r r e

    c t i o n

    P r e v e n

    t i o n

    B r e a k t h r

    o u g h

    i m p r o

    v e m e n t s

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    Continuous

    improvement

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    It is a positive attitude through

    Existing operation has always a lot of room for improvement

    Existing facilities & methods can

    always be improved by effortThe accumulated improvementsmakes big difference

    Continuous Improvement - KAIZEN

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    Worst CompaniesWorst Companies

    Top

    Middle

    Supervisor

    Worker M a i n t a i n

    Concern

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    Breakdown between Maintenance, Kaizen &Improvement

    Concern

    Improve

    Kaizen

    Maintenance

    Top

    Middle

    Supervisor

    Worker

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    Traditional Management Philosophy

    GEMBA-The Work Place

    CustomersExpectation

    CustomersSatisfaction

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    GEMBA

    ManagementSupport

    CustomersExpectatio

    n

    CustomersSatisfactio

    n

    Kaizen Philosophy of Gemba Management

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    Production

    ProductionCapability

    Quality Circles

    GEMBA

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    Quality Circles

    Originated in April 1962, by Dr K. Ishikawa

    Adopted in India by BHEL-Ramachandrapuram in 1970s.

    Made famous in 1982 by Sh ND Tiwari

    In 1983, Seminar and training programme was carried out in Vigyan Bhawan for CMDs and Sr. officials..

    GEMBA

    Lower Mgmt

    Middle Mgmt

    Top Mgmt

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    Quality CirclesQC Circle is a small group, consisting of

    Gemba people-First line work place people,work towards improving and maintaining thework place.

    GEMBA

    Lower MgmtMiddle Mgmt

    Top Mgmt

    They display creativity, make self development and promoteself-actualization.

    Enhance Customer Satisfaction, Safety, reduce fatigue,promote productivity.

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    Quality CirclesHigher officials, must necessarily, engagethemselves in a noticeable TQM activity,relevant to other employees like Kaizen, 5S.

    GEMBA

    Lower MgmtMiddle Mgmt

    Top Mgmt

    Give Guidance and Support..

    Enhance participation of everybody.

    Make it evident that QC is not an addendum, butprimary responsibility like other jobs.

    We make People before we make it products. M. Matsushita, National Panasonic

    GEMBA

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    Quality Circles

    QC Circle is a Group Oriented Kaizen activity.

    Behind every suspenseful QC circle, there is a (an exhausted) Manager, playing invisible but Vital supporting role.

    Suggestion system, QC circle shows that employees areactively involved in Kaizen.

    QC activities should be made Visually seen by makingbanners, posters---, so that employees are motivated.

    GEMBA

    Lower Mgmt

    Middle Mgmt

    Top Mgmt

    GEMBA

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    Quality Circles

    What QC Circle is Not??

    It contributed to Japans success alone.

    QC is TQM.

    QC is for money saving!!

    Effectiveness of any Organisation adopting QCC ismeasured by number of QCs.

    GEMBA

    Lower Mgmt

    Middle Mgmt

    Top Mgmt

    GEMBA

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    Quality Circles- The ProcessGEMBA

    Lower Mgmt

    Middle Mgmt

    Top Mgmt

    Orientation of all Executives, regardless of hierarchicalposition ( in batches, if not possible at one go )

    Orientation of all potential QCC members and solicitingvolunteers.

    Each QCC must not have more than 6-8 members.

    There is to be facilitator for each QCC and one overall co-ordinator (who has a penchant for Quality, enthusiastic).

    Training of QCCs along with the Facilitators, spread over 4-5months.

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    Improvement Ideas

    Japan: 24 improvement ideas in writingper employee each year

    U.S. : Average less than one

    United Kingdom: one idea every six years

    India: Average 2-3 ideas per employeeper annum (Nestle)

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    Improvement Ideas

    24/72 Rule in Florida Power & Light, In 24 hours, suggestion is acknowledged

    by supervisor

    In 72 hours, employees gets a feedbackon status

    Lunch with Head-Power Station who gives morethan 10 suggestions that are considered forimplementation

    Employees can track their suggestions and gets toknow POINTS accumula

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