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# TQM Lecture

Mar 04, 2016

## Documents

amul65

TQM

• Basic Data Analysis:Descriptive Statistics

• Planning for Data Analysis

Outline for Data Analysis Plan

1. Select appropriate software.

2. Conduct preanalytical steps.

3. Identify specific statistical procedures.

4. Identify summary tables, graphs and outlines to organize results.

• Analytical Plan

Analytical Plan Driven by:

1. Purpose/Objectives of Research

exploratory

descriptive/predictive

causal

2. Nature and Properties of the Technique Itself specification of the relationship

the number of variables

level of measurement

assumptions of technique

• Sample Windows and Menus in SPSS for Windows

• Sample Windows and Menus in SPSS for Windows, continued

• Pre-analytical Steps,

Description, & Related Issues

• Basic Analytical Framework for Business Research

• Key Questions Pertaining to Planning the Pre-analytical and Analytical Processes

• Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research

Data summarization: the process of describing a data matrix by computing a small number of measures that characterize the data set

• Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research

Four functions of data summarization:

Summarizes the data

Applies understandable conceptualizations

Communicates underlying patterns

Generalizes sample findings to the population

• Why is Statistical Analysis Used?

Why Use Statistical Analysis?

To summarize data

The average price of a Gateway PC is \$2,489

The low is \$999, and the high is \$4,678: this is the range

The mode is \$2,200

• Why is Statistical Analysis Used?

Why Use Statistical Analysis?

To show basic patterns in the data

30% buys at \$1,500 or less

50% buys at between \$2,500 and \$1,500

20% buys at \$2,500 or more

• Why is Statistical Analysis Used?

Why Use Statistical Analysis?

To interpret these patterns

The majority of Gateway buyers pay \$2,500 or less

• Why is Statistical Analysis Used?

Why Use Statistical Analysis?

To generalize the patterns to the population

95% of all Gateway buyers pay between \$2,000 and \$3,000 for their PCs

• Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research

Statistical Analysis:

• Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research

Five Types of Statistical Analysis:

1. Descriptive analysis: used to describe the data set

2. Inferential analysis: used to generate conclusions about the populations characteristics based on the sample data

• Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research3. Differences analysis: used to compare

the mean of the responses of one group to that of another group

4. Associative analysis: determines the strength and direction of relationships between two or more variables

• Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research5. Predictive analysis: allows one to

make forecasts for future events

• Understanding Data Via Descriptive Analysis

Two sets of descriptive measures:

Measures of central tendency: used to report a single piece of information that describes the most typical response to a question

Measures of variability: used to reveal the typical difference between the values in a set of values

• Understanding Data Via Descriptive Analysis

Measures of Central Tendency:

Mode: the value in a string of numbers that occurs most often

Median: the value whose occurrence lies in the middle of a set of ordered values

Mean: sometimes referred to as the arithmetic mean; the average value characterizing a set of numbers

• Understanding Data Via Descriptive Analysis

Measures of Variability:

Frequency distribution reveals the number (percent) of occurrences of each number or set of numbers

Range identifies the maximum and minimum values in a set of numbers

Standard deviation indicates the degree of variation in a way that can be translated into a bell-shaped curve distribution

• Understanding Data Via Descriptive Analysis

Measures of Variability:

• When to Use a Particular Statistic

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