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Toward Empire 1865–1902

Jan 17, 2016

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21. Toward Empire 1865–1902. TR and the Rough Riders in Action A blend of Ivy League athletes and Western frontiersmen, the Rough Riders, became the most famous military unit in the war. Toward Empire 1865–1902. America Looks Outward War with Spain Acquisition of Empire. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • TR and the Rough Riders in Action A blend of Ivy League athletes and Western frontiersmen, the Rough Riders, became the most famous military unit in the war.

  • Toward Empire18651902America Looks OutwardWar with SpainAcquisition of Empire

  • Roosevelt and the Rough RidersRoosevelt hoped world-movement would establish U.S. as world power, particularly in Asian and Latin AmericaPolicymakers fostered overseas business interests, strengthened navy, extended U.S. influence into Pacific

  • America Looks Outward

  • America Looks OutwardU.S. expansion shifted after 1890Strategically placed islands taken, intended only as colonies

  • Catching the Spirit of EmpireDomestic concerns dominated the post-Civil War years1870s brought new interest in areas beyond U.S. boundariesInternationalism began to replace nationalism

  • Reasons for ExpansionExpansion abroad sought to gain marketsEvolutionary ideas encouraged expansion to give guidance to native peoples elsewhereMissionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strongs popular Our Country (1885)

  • Foreign Policy Approaches,18671900Expansionist foreign policyAcquisitions: Alaska, Midway Islands Eroded European influence in Latin AmericaDiverted Latin American trade from Europe through a series of reciprocity treaties U.S. supported Venezuela against Great Britain

  • The Lure of Hawaii 1875: U.S. granted Hawaiian sugar free entry 1887: new treaty gave U.S. exclusive use of Pearl HarborQueen Liliuokalani retaliated for McKinley Tariff, attempted to reduce U.S. influence1893: American settlers pulled off coup 1898: Hawaii made U.S. Possession

  • Map 21.1 Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands provided the United States with both a convenient stopping point on the way to Asianmarkets and a strategic naval station in the Pacific.

  • The Last Hawaiian Queen The first step toward American annexation of Hawaii came in 1893 when Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown. Hawaii was annexed to the United States as a possession in 1898 and became a U.S. territory in 1900. This photograph from c. 1898 shows the former queen with guests and members of her household at Washington Place, her residence from 1896 until her death in 1917.

  • The New NavyAlfred Mahan argued that overseas markets were essential for industrial surplusesLarge merchant marine, strong navy needed 1889: Secretary of Navy Benjamin Tracy supervised a program of naval construction U.S. gained offensive capability at sea

  • New Steel Navy Return of the Conquerors by Edward Moran celebrates the triumphant return of Americas Great White Fleet. The fleet of 16 white-hulled battleships and supporting craft set off in December 1907 on a 14-month, round-the-world cruise as a dramatic show of Americas naval strength.

  • War with Spain

  • War with SpainThe war increased overseas possessions It also gained the U.S. recognition as a world powerAmericans became convinced they had a special destiny

  • A War for PrincipleFebruary, 1895: Rebellion in Cuba"Yellow press" whipped up U.S. sentiment to favor Cuban independenceMcKinley gained Spanish concessions February, 1898: Explosion of the Maine

  • A War for Principle (contd)April, 19: Congress declared Cuba independent, passed "Teller Amendment"April, 25: U.S. declared war on Spain

  • The Spanish-American WarU.S. regular army small, ill-prepared Problems of equipment and supplyRegulars possessed latest Krag-Jorgensen riflesGuard units possessed old Springfield riflesMost soldiers fight in National Guard units

  • African American Soldiers in the WarAfrican Americans served in army Guard unitsBlack troops resisted segregationAfrican American soldiers won 26 Certificates of Merit, 5 Congressional Medals of Honor

  • The Battle of San Juan Hill Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, colored lithograph by Kurz and Allison, 1899 (above). The Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Colored Infantry regiments served with exceptional gallantry in the Spanish-American War. Charles Young (left), an 1889 graduate of West Point, was the only African American officer in the army during the war except for a few chaplains.

  • The Course of the WarMay, 1: Commodore George Dewey captured Manila BayJune: Cuba invadedJuly: Santiago surrendered, Puerto Rico occupiedAugust, 13: Philippines surrendered

  • African Americans in the War with Spain Charles Young an 1889 graduate of West Point, was the only African American officer in the army during the Spanish-American War except for a few chaplains.

  • Map 21.2 Spanish-American War: Pacific Theater Commodore Dewey, promoted to admiral immediately after the naval victory at Manila Bay, was the first hero of the war.

  • Map 21.3 Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater President McKinley set up a war room in the White House, following the action on giant maps with red and white marking pins.

  • Acquisition of Empire

  • Acquisition of EmpireFate of the Philippines was the thorniest issue at the peace negotiationsDecember, 1898: Treaty of ParisCuba independentU.S. acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

  • The Treaty of Paris DebateDebate over annexation of the Philippines Opponents formed the Anti-Imperialist LeagueAgainst big armies, government, and debtRepublican ideals incompatible with imperialism

  • The Treaty of Paris Debate (contd)February, 1899: Ratification of peace treaty made U.S. a colonizing nation

  • Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines18981901: Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippine independence movementFilipinos used guerilla war tactics, U.S. adopted tactics Spanish used in Cuba

  • Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines1901: U.S. replaced military with civil rule, Taft named civilian governorLocal self-government permittedSchedule established for independenceJuly 4, 1946: Philippine independence

  • Map 21.4 American Empire, 1900 With the Treaty of Paris, the United States gained an expanded colonial empire stretching from the Caribbean to the far Pacific. It embraced Puerto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii, part of Samoa, Guam, the Philippines, and a chain of Pacific islands. The dates on the map refer to the date of U.S. acquisition.

  • The Open DoorMarch, 1900: "Open Door" policy in ChinaNo European nation should carve out a sphere of influence in China and exclude others from trading in the area

  • The Open Door (contd)Despite American claims to the contrary, other countries did not accept itPolicy opened the potential for later conflict with expansion-minded powers in Pacific

  • U.S. Policy in Asia In this 1899 cartoon, Putting His Foot Down from Puck, the nations of Europe are getting ready to cut up China to expand their spheres of influence, but Uncle Sam stands firm on American commit- ments to preserve Chinas sovereignty.

  • Conclusion: Outcome of the War with Spain

  • Conclusion:Outcome of the War with SpainTeddy Roosevelt a war heroSet back the cause of civil rights for African Americans Confirmed Republicans as majority partyU.S. soldiers stationed outside the country

  • Map 21.5 World Colonial Empires, 1900 Events of the nineteenth century increased European hegemony over the world. By 1900, most independent African nations had disappeared and the major European nations had divided the continent among themselves. In the East, the European powers and Japan took advantage of Chinas internal weakness to gain both trading ports and economic concessions.

  • Timeline

    TR and the Rough Riders in Action A blend of Ivy League athletes and Western frontiersmen, the Rough Riders, became the most famous military unit in the war.*America Looks Outward*Map 21.1 Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands provided the United States with both a convenient stopping point on the way to Asianmarkets and a strategic naval station in the Pacific.*The Last Hawaiian Queen The first step toward American annexation of Hawaii came in 1893 when Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown. Hawaii was annexed to the United States as a possession in 1898 and became a U.S. territory in 1900. This photograph from c. 1898 shows the former queen with guests and members of her household at Washington Place, her residence from 1896 until her death in 1917.*New Steel Navy Return of the Conquerors by Edward Moran celebrates the triumphant return of Americas Great White Fleet. The fleet of 16 white-hulled battleships and supporting craft set off in December 1907 on a 14-month, round-the-world cruise as a dramatic show of Americas naval strength.*War with Spain*The Battle of San Juan Hill Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, colored lithograph by Kurz and Allison, 1899 (above). The Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Colored Infantry regiments served with exceptional gallantry in the Spanish-American War. Charles Young (left), an 1889 graduate of West Point, was the only African American officer in the army during the war except for a few chaplains.*African Americans in the War with Spain Charles Young an 1889 graduate of West Point, was the only African American officer in the army during the Spanish-American War except for a few chaplains.*Map 21.2 Spanish-American War: Pacific Theater Commodore Dewey, promoted to admiral immediately after the naval victory at Manila Bay, was the first hero of the war.*Map 21.3 Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater President McKinley set up a war room in the White House, following the action on giant maps with red and white marking pins.*Acquisition of Empire*Map

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