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Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?
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Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Dec 31, 2015

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Page 1: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory

• Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Page 2: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Carrying Capacity: An area’s ability to support it’s population – if this is exceeded we refer to it as overpopulation.

Overpopulation exists even in sparsely populated regions.

Overpopulation refers to the stress population puts on resources, not the number of people in a region!

Page 3: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Demographic Momentum: concept that even after Total Fertility Rate decreases, population still continues to grow rapidly for several years. Why would this happen?

Replacement Rate: the amount of children a couple must have to replace themselves demographically in a society.

Page 4: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Maharashtra, India. A sign reads “free family planning sterlization

operation” closed in 1996.

Page 5: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Thomas Malthus:

• English economist (1766-1843)

• Argued that population growing faster than Earth’s food supply. Population increased geometrically, food supply increased arithmetically.

• Must be understood contextually to time and place (i.e. – Industrial England)

Page 6: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

•Looking at the theory from a 21st century American citizen, in what ways was Malthusian Theory not accurate

Page 7: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Neo-Malthusians:

•Malthus failed to anticipate medical revolution and impact on LDC’s, and thus the gap between population growth and resources

•Population absorbing all kinds of resources, not just food (energy sources, food, land, air, etc)

Page 8: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Critique of Malthusian Theory:

• Based on belief that world’s supply of resources is fixed

• Argue that population could solve, not cause problems (economic growth, food production)

• Marxists argue that world problems (hunger, poverty, etc) result from unjust social institutions (i.e. Capitalism), not from population increase

Malthus expected population to grow more rapidly than food production. In reality, during the second half of the twentieth century–when world population grew at its most rapid rate ever–food production actually expanded even more rapidly.

Page 9: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Declining Birth Rates:

1. In most nations, decline in NIR occurs because of lower birth rates, not deaths. Due to 2 factors:

2. Economic Development (long term): with better wealth/education, women alter reproductive behavior

3. Contraceptives (short term): Distribution of birth control methods

Page 10: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

• Maternal mortality ratio is the greatest health disparity between the developed and developing countries.

• The World Health Organization reports that 600,000 women die each year from complications of pregnancy.

• Social, cultural and economic barriers prevent women in the developing countries from receiving proper health care.

Page 11: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?
Page 12: Topic: Overpopulation & Malthusian Theory Aim: In what ways can we define overpopulation?

Solutions to Population Growth:

• Empowerment of Women– Money for contraception & education– Changing cultural norms to value girls

• Diffusion of Birth Control Policies– Educating men with responsibility for birth control– Sterilization