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Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X
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Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Dec 28, 2015

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Darlene Wiggins
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Page 1: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Tooth with plaqueMagnification: 10X

Page 2: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Toothbrush and ToothMagnification: 75X

Page 3: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Human Finger tipMagnification: 12X

Page 4: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Human Finger tipMagnification: 600X

Page 5: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Human Skin with BacteriaMagnification: 8,000X

Page 6: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

MosquitoMagnification: 50X

Page 7: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Human CellsMagnification:10,000X

Page 8: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Embryonic HandMagnification 7X5 weeks

Embryonic HandMagnification 10X11 weeks

Human Embryo Magnification 10X16 weeks

Page 9: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Stomach Pit with Red Blood Cell and AcidMagnification: 3,000X

Page 10: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Human BrainMagnification: 5X

Page 11: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

6 week Human EmbryoMagnification: 10X

Page 12: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

The Microscope

Page 13: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

• Microscope—tool used to study things too small to be seen by the unaided eye.

• History:– Invented by the Jansen

brothers in 1590.– Improved by Anton Van

Leeuwenhoek in the 1600’s.

• His first scope had a power of 270X.

• He made over 400 different microscopes.

• Known as the “Father of Microbiology.”

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

Page 14: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Types of Microscopes• Compound Light Microscope —

uses lenses to magnify and light to illuminate. The most powerful can magnify 2000X. – Eyepiece —lens closest to the eye.– Objective lens —lens closest to the

object.– Total magnification —the power of

the eyepiece times the power of the objective.

– Example: 10X x 43X = 430X

Page 15: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Types of Microscopes

• Stereoscope —used to view larger objects. The light source is above the object, not below.

Page 16: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Types of Microscopes• Electron Microscope —uses magnets to focus a

beam of electrons.– Electrons are negatively charged particles.– Total magnification can be up to 1,000,000X.– Disadvantages—sometimes can not study living

organisms; expensive; too powerful– Types:

• Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)—used to study internal parts of a specimen.

• Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)—used to see the surface of whole objects.

• Scanning Tunneling Microscope—the most powerful. Invented in 1981. Has a magnification of 100 million times and a resolution of 1/100th the diameter of an atom.

Page 17: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Transmission Electron Microscope

• The TEM passes electrons through the object being studied. It can magnify as much as 200,000x but can not be used to observe living tissue.

Page 18: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

• The TEM gives very detailed pictures of the internal structure of materials, either biological or non-biological.

Example: Golgi body of an a animal cell.

Page 19: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Scanning Electron Microscope• The SEM has a

magnification range of 15x to 200,000x and a resolution of 5 nanometers.

• It produces a detailed, three dimensional black and white image

35x 200x 1000x 35000x

Page 20: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

• Specimens to be viewed by the SEM must be carefully dried to prevent shriveling and must be made to conduct electricity by coating them with a thin layer of gold in a machine called a sputter coater.

Sputter coater

Dried specimen

Page 21: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

• Finally, the specimen is placed in the microscope’s vacuum column through an air-tight door. Air is pumped out and an electron gun emits a beam of high-energy electrons which is focused by a series of magnets.

Page 22: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

• The Scanning Tunneling Microscope invented by John Wendelken and Joe Carpinelli. The microscope is nicknamed JEOL.

Page 23: Tooth with plaque Magnification: 10X. Toothbrush and Tooth Magnification: 75X.

Eyepiece

Eyepiece Tube

BodyRevolving Nosepiece Objective lenses

Stage Stage Clips

Coarse Adjustment

Fine Adjustment

Diaphragm

Light

Base

Arm

Microscope Diagram

Microscope FlipchartActivity