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TOGAF Explained

Jan 11, 2016




This document explaines the TOGAF Framework ,its mapping with Zachman framework and its stages of implementation along with a live case example of TOGAF implementation



Describe the TOGAF Enterprise Architecture Framework and map it to the Zachman Framework.According to Gartner, Enterprise architecture is a discipline for proactively and holistically leading enterprise responsesto disruptive forces by identifying and analyzing the execution of change towards desired business vision and outcomes.

Enterprise architecture has rapidly matured in recent years as a business-driven technique to provide companies with the big picture needed to optimize long-term IT investments. The main reason for developing enterprise architecture is to support the business by providing the fundamental technology and process structure for an IT strategy, which in turn makes IT a responsive asset for a successful modern business strategy.Typical problems in enterprise architecture involve: System complexity Poor business alignmentOther issues include multiple data sources for same data entity, proliferation of interfaces, incompatible technologies, and procurement and supplier control.

Using an architecture framework speeds up and simplifies architecture development, ensures complete coverage of the designed solution, and makes certain that the architecture selected allows future growth in response to the needs of the business. TOGAF (The Open group Architecture Framework) is one of the approaches to enterprise architecture, which may be used freely by any organization wishing to develop enterprise architecture for use within that organization.

TOGAFs view of enterprise includes four categories:Business Architecture defines the key business processes, strategy, and governance of the organisation.Application architecture gives blueprint and interactions of specific applications.Data Architecture describes the organization of data assets and associated data management. Technical Architecture describes the software, hardware and network infrastructure to support deployment of applications.

TOGAF consists of three main parts:1. The Enterprise Continuum is a virtual repository of all the architecture assets - models, patterns, architecture descriptions, etc. TOGAF views the world of enterprise architecture as a continuum of architectures, ranging from highly generic to highly specific. Architects find building blocks as they proceed through the continuum and assemble them into their own Organization Architecture.

2. The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) provides guidance to implement and execute organization specific EA to address business requirements. The process has multiple, consecutive phases enclosed in a closed loop. The various phases are shown in the diagram below:

3. The TOGAF Resource Base is a set of resources - guidelines, templates, background information, etc. to help in the usage of the ADM.Example of TOGAF Implementation:The Dairy Farm Group (DFG) of Hong Kong illustrates the extensive use of TOGAF for enterprise wide IT architecture to align disparate business units. The DFG belongs to retail sector and has strong presence in Asia-Pacific region. Its corporate goal is to be the most successful and largest retailer in its chosen markets in Asia-Pacific. To achieve this goal, it restructured from a federation to a unified group of companies with single IT infrastructure and single corporate purpose business focus. The technical architecture group was chartered to develop a enterprise architecture and chose TOGAF as the foundation. Using TOGAF, they were able to develop a world class technical architecture within a short span of time (July through October 1998).

MAPPING TOGAF WITH ZACHMAN FRAMEWORKThe scope of four architecture domains of TOGAF framework aligns with the first four rows of the Zachman framework namely Contextual, Conceptual, Logical and Physical as shown in the figure below.TOGAFBUSINESS ARCHTOGAF- DATA ARCHITECTURETOGAF- TECH. ARCHITECTURETOGAF- APPLICATION ARCH

There is a defined alignment between cells of Zachman framework and TOGAF. The cell corresponding to the intersection of Data (Column) and System Model is mapped to the data architecture of TOGAF which represents the data as well as the information flowing through the enterprise services and processes. The intersection of Function (Column) and Scope model of Zachman can be mapped to the services and processes which are defined in the business architecture of TOGAF. The network of People as well as IP networks which forms the Technical Architecture of TOGAF could be mapped to the intersection of network (column) and the technology of Zachman. Also the People (column) and Enterprises intersection can be aligned with the applications architecture comprising of user interfaces, consumers and their business applications. The time and motivation columns of Zachman can be related to events and policies and governance (ADM) of TOBAG respectively.

We also see that TOGAF provides methodology for Zachman as there is similar layering Zachman: context >> conceptual>> logical>>physical TOGAF: business >> information systems >> technologyTOGAF and Zachman cover similar domains which are business drivers and business process along with data, information, locations applications, technology implementation and networks. Apart from the TOGAF model mapping to cells of Zachman, the TOGAF architecture development method (ADM) stages are also mapped to cover different cells of Zachman Framework. The below table represents the mapping of each phases of TOGAF ADM to cells of Zachman:Phases of TOGAF ADMOutput of each PhaseCell of Zachman covered by the phase of TOGAF ADM

Preliminary Phase: Framework and PrinciplesFramework DefinitionArchitecture principles

ZF: R1ZF: R2- C2 and R2-C6

Phase A: Architecture VisionArchitecture, Vision/Business Scenario, Architecture WorkZF: Row 1,2 and 3

Phase B: Business Architecture

Target Business ArchitectureTechnology Architecture workZF: Row 1ZF: Row 1 except column C1ZF: R3,C6 and R3,C3

Phase C: Information System Architectures: Data Architecture

Target Data ArchitectureZF: Row 3ZF: Row 1 except C2ZF: R1-C1,R1-C4 AND R1-C5