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Time Management Time - Super Duper · PDF file Time Management Time Management ASHA (2000) identified “organizing and time management” as one of nine skills that graduate students

Apr 19, 2020

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  • A. Lynn Williams, Ph.D. East Tennessee State

    University

    Updates in TreatingUpdates in Treating Speech DisordersSpeech Disorders

    in Childrenin Children

    Workshop ObjectivesWorkshop Objectives • Make it ACAPACAP

    AssessmentAssessment PVM and SPACS Analyses

    Target selectionTarget selection New perspectives on old procedures New approach: Distance Metric

    InterventionIntervention Contrastive Approaches Software support (SCIP)

    Time Time ManagementManagement

    Time ManagementTime Management ASHA (2000) identified

    “organizing and time management” as one of nine skills that

    graduate students in SLP/A need to learn

    in addition to their “technical knowledge”

    of the field (Long, 2001)

    Time ManagementTime Management 1. Collect speech sample 2. Transcribe sample 3. Analyze sample 4. Interpret results 5. Select appropriate treatment targets 6. Select appropriate treatment model 7. Develop list of training exemplars 8. Retrieve pictured stimuli for training exemplars 9. Copy, cut, and paste treatment pictures onto index cards

    10. File pictured stimuli and data sheets in client folder (and hope they don’t fall out as you run to session!)

    Time:Time: • Less time • More time

    required on the front end for SLPs – Less training and linguistic

    expertise required to complete analyses and develop treatment materials

    – Availability of commercial materials

    required on the front end for SLPs – More training and linguistic

    expertise to complete analyses and develop treatment materials

    – Currently no commercial materials available for newer treatment models

    Longer periods of time in treatment for clients (5-6 years; Hodson, 1998)

    Shorter periods of time in treatment for clients

    (2-3 years or less; Williams, 2000)

    vv ss

    Traditional ApproachesTraditional Approaches Phonological ApproachesPhonological Approaches

    1

  • Time:Time:

    required on the front end for SLPs

    • Shorter periods in treatment for clients (2-3 years or less; Williams, 2000)

    Phonological ApproachesPhonological Approaches

    • Less time

    ItIt’’s Also About Times Also About Time for Our Clientsfor Our Clients

    • Critical age hypotheses for remediating unintelligible speech: – Unintelligible speech must be resolved

    by age 5;6 in order to significantly reduce academic problems associated with speech disorders (Bishop & Adams, 1990).

    ItIt’’s Also About Times Also About Time for Our Clientsfor Our Clients

    • Critical age hypotheses for remediating unintelligible speech: – Unintelligible speech during

    early school years may affect literacy development.

    ItIt’’s Also About Times Also About Time for Our Clientsfor Our Clients

    • Critical age hypotheses for remediating unintelligible speech: Given that many children do not come to SLP for treatment until age 4 (Castrogiovanni, 1999), there is a significant need for efficient and effective therapies to remediate the speech disorder within a short time period (e.g., 18 months)

    ItIt’’s Also About Times Also About Time for Our Clientsfor Our Clients

    Clearly, unintelligible

    children don’t have

    time to waste.

    AssessmentAssessment

    2

  • • Error analysis or descriptive analysis?

    Perspectives onPerspectives on Phonological AssessmentPhonological Assessment

    • Adult-based or child-based? • Sound-based or

    system-based?

    ?

    ??

    ? ?

    Error AnalysisError Analysis • More current method of

    assessing speech disorders

    • Examines child’s system as unique, self- contained sound system

    • Includes the following: – PPK –– SPACSSPACS – OT

    • Traditional method of assessing speech disorders

    • Only examines child’s errors

    • Includes the following assessments: – SODA – Phonological Process

    Analysis –– PlacePlace--VoiceVoice--Manner Manner

    AnalysisAnalysis

    Error Error oror Descriptive Analysis?Descriptive Analysis??

    ?

    ?

    ? ?

    Descriptive AnalysisDescriptive Analysis

    • Traditional analyses, as well as some of more current analyses, are based on a set of a- priori, pre-determined categories – PPA – PPK – OT

    • Child-based analyses do not have pre- determined number of finite categories or rules in which children’s error patterns are described – SPACS

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ? ?

    AdultAdult--Based orBased or Child Based?Child Based?

    • Traditional analyses, and some newer approaches, are based on the description of individual sounds in relation to the adult sound system – Provides a more fragmented description of child’s speech

    disorder – Sound-to-sound comparison

    • System-based analyses, such as SPACS, map child’s system to the adult’s system – Provides a holistic description of child’s sound system in

    relation to the ambient sound system – System-to-system comparison

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ?

    Sound Based orSound Based or SystemSystem--Based?Based?

    Characteristics of a Characteristics of a Phonological DisabilityPhonological Disability

    • Child’s system is smaller than the adult system

    • One-to-many correspondence between child:adult systems

    • Relationship between the phonetic properties of adult target and child’s production

    Systemic PhonologicalSystemic Phonological Analysis of Child Speech Analysis of Child Speech (SPACS)(SPACS)

    • Child’s ENTIRE system is examined as a unique, independent system (“own language”)

    • Views child as ACTIVE and CREATIVE learner of the sound system

    • Compares SYSTEM to SYSTEM (child:adult) • Maps child:adult system in terms of

    phoneme collapses (one-to-many correspondence)

    • Child-based rather than adult-based

    3

  • Systemic PhonologicalSystemic Phonological Analysis of Child Speech Analysis of Child Speech (SPACS)(SPACS)

    • Describes idiosyncratic errors not captured by common phonological processes

    • Provides a holistic assessment of child’s speech • Phoneme collapses (phonological rules) are seen

    as compensatory strategies that child uses to accommodate a limited sound system to the larger adult sound system – these compensatory strategies are organized

    according to particular aspects of adult system in terms of PLACE, MANNER, VOICE

    • There is “order” in the “disorder”

    GFTAGFTA--22 Data SetData Set

    (Adam)(Adam)

    4

  • 5

  • 6

  • 7

  • 8

  • 9

  • 10

  • SPACS Phoneme CollapseSPACS Phoneme Collapse g b stops d ð w glides f j v w l liquids s fricatives r z fl clusters

    g ʃ sl ʧ affricates sw ʤ 1:7 phoneme collapse gl dr fr gr clusters tr kw st

    1:18 phoneme collapse

    11

  • 12

  • 13

  • 14

  • 15

  • TargetTarget SelectionSelection

    Selecting Targets for InterventionSelecting Targets for Intervention

    • Target selection is the between assessment and intervention

    • Is an important variable in treatment efficacy

    • Impacts treatment outcomes

    link link

    NewNew PerspectivesPerspectives onon OldOld ProceduresProcedures

    - Earlier or later developing sounds? - Absent or inconsistent sounds?

    - Stimulable or non-stimulable sounds? - Targets from the same or different

    classes? - Clusters or singletons?

    Influence of Phonological ComplexityInfluence of Phonological Complexity in Management Decisionsin Management Decisions

    • Shift in traditional methods of target selection – Traditionally, select sounds that were assumed to be

    easiereasier to produce and followed a developmental sequence

    – Early, stimulable, and inconsistent sounds

    • Currently, new methods of target selection examine the role phonological complexityphonological complexity has on learnability – Specifically, select sounds that are more complex

    (later, non(later, non--stimulable, and absent sounds)stimulable, and absent sounds) – Shift from “sound learning” to “system shifting”

    Traditional Traditional vsvs PhonologicalPhonological Approaches to Target SelectionApproaches to Target Selection

    TraditionalTraditional PhonologicalPhonological •• Based on Based on phonemicphonemic

    (superordinate)(superordinate) factorsfactors – phonological complexity – distance metric (will

    discuss as third option)

    •• AssumptionsAssumptions – learnability is enhanced

    with the greatest amount of change occurring in the least amount of time

    •• Based on Based on phonetic phonetic (subordinate)(subordinate) factorsfactors – developmental norms – stimulability – consistency of error

    •• AssumptionsAssumptions – motoric basis of sound

    learning – ease of acquisition – sequential order of

    acquisition

    Target Selection: Target Selection: SetSet--Subset RelationshipsSubset Relationships

    TraditionalTraditional Phonological ComplexityPhonological Complexity • Select complex

    targets th

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