Click here to load reader
Click here to load reader
Jan 02, 2016
John Bunyan 1628-1688
John Bunyan The Pilgrims Progress, 1678Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679John Bunyan, 1628-1688John Dryden, 1631-1700John Locke, 1632-1704Mary Astell, 1666-1731Daniel Defoe, 1660-1731A. Bunyan was in a different social-political-religious group from that of Hobbes and Dryden.1. Lower social rank2. Dissenter or non-conformistActs of dissentPreaching (which was forbidden)Refusing to accept the Book of Common Prayer (which was required)B. Bunyan wrote TPP in his 12 years in jail.2I. Locating Bunyan on the Restoration map2His father was an itinerant, a tinker or mender of pots. But Bunyan was taught both to read and to write.The Corporation Act (1661) forbade municipal office to those not taking the sacraments at a parish church.
The Act of Conformity (1662) similarly excluded dissenters from church offices.
The Conventicle Act (1662, revised 1670) made meetings for Nonconformist worship illegal, even in private houses, where more than four outsiders were present.
The Five-Mile Act (1665) forbade Nonconformist ministers to live or visit within five miles of a town or any other place where they had ministered.
See Encyclopedia Britannica: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9024196Title pageA. Key terms:1. Journey
2. Similitude of a Dream
3. This world vs That which is to come3II. What does the title page tell us?
Source of image: http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/eebo/Definition of experienceChristian to Pliable: had even Obstinate himself, but felt what I have felt of the Powers, and Terrours of what is yet unseen, he would not thus lightly have give us the back (14, emphasis added).The books purpose: This Book will make a Travailer of thee ("Apology"). 4A.1. Journey: Metaphor for Experiencea) Allegory: several definitions Allegory: OED definition [Notice references to Galatians.]
b) Bunyans allegory makes internal conditions visible as if they were acted out in a landscape or in some visible domestic space.
the wilderness of this world (10) the Slough of Despond (16-17) the unswept Parlor (30) the man in the iron cage (34 ff).
I saw a Man . . . a Book in his hand, and a great burden upon his back5A. 2:Similitude of a dream: allegory
http://library.uncg.edu/depts/speccoll/exhibits/Blake/pilgrims_progress.html1. "Interpreter: For the things that are seen, are Temporal; but the things that are not seen, are Eternal. . . . But . . . since things present, and our fleshly appetite, are such near Neighbours one to another . . . " (32)
2. Bunyan emphasizes the opposition between the carnal (bodily) senses and an inward capacity for spiritual seeing and understanding.
3. Bunyans allegory solves the epistemological problem of the invisibility of spiritual (eternal) knowledge.Spiritual knowledge is different from and higher than carnal knowledge.6 A. 3. This world vs that which is to come 6Importance of seeing as a means of knowing.a spiritual problem expressed as an epistemological problem.a) An alternative and competing frame of reference for inheritance: I seek an inheritance . . .(13) (See the lord of the place  and later Adam the First, who tries to make the pilgrims his heirs  )
b) An alternative psychology: Passion & Patience (31)
c) The status of Custom (40)73. This world vs that which is to come (cont.)7Inheritance is displaced. Christian delineates an alternative system of benefit and obligation8
A. 3 d. Detail from Apollyon & Christian by William Blakescales like a Fish; Wings like a Dragon, feet like a Bear (57)
This episode combines the 17th. c. language of political allegiance with an apocalyptic understanding of a battle between Gods forces and the Devils.
For Puritans, this great conflict reduces the significance of contemporary political issues and provides the context for them.A. Law condemns everyone: As many as are the works of the Law, are under the curse; for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them (24).B. Bunyans characterization of Mount Sinai, Legality, the bondwoman (Hagar) & Ishmael (20-24) creates an allegorical landscape of the souls experience. The soul must get beyond the law.C. Bunyans use of the bondwoman is an example, within the allegory, of typological reading.9III. The contrast between law and grace governs Bunyans imagination. 1. What is typology?
2. Pauls example in Galatians of how Christians should read the Hebrew scriptures.
3. Typological interpretation is compatible with but not the same as allegorical interpretation.10III.C. Law & Grace provide the underpinnings of what became a Christian method of interpretation.10is an essential method of interpretation for Christians.11
Claude Lorrain (1600-1682): The Departure of Hagar & Ishmael http://www.google.com/search?q=Hagar+and+Ishmael&hl=en&lr=&safe=off&btnG=Google+SearchHagar, who was an Egyptian woman, becomes, in Pauls system, a type or figure for the Jewish law or old covenant (Sinai).
Sarah, Abrahams wife, is a type or figure for the new covenant (grace).
That is, Hagar, an Egyptian, foreshadows the old law or covenant that God made with the people of Israel.
And Sarah foreshadows the new covenant or grace.
Now look again at Bunyans use of the bondwoman.12III. D. Pauls direction for typological reading1. Law, grace, & the parlor (30-31)
2. Christian loses his burden (37)
3. Christian loses his Roll (42)
13IV. Further Interpretation14V. Returning to the title pageTitle: an oxymoronCompare itinerant epic
Symbolic landscape is also rural England.
The desired Countrey requires turning ones back on Restoration Englandseparating oneself from the world, a separation that has political as well as religious implications.
What question do you think The Pilgrims Progress answers?15VI. Your turn