Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Therapy for living well

Feb 24, 2016




Therapy for living well. Tahirah Samuels, LMSW. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PowerPoint Presentation

Therapy for living wellTahirah Samuels, LMSWAt some point we all get stuck. We stay where we feel comfortable and forget what it was we really wanted to accomplish with our life. We find ourselves just going through the motions of day to day life, while hoping for an experience that will shake us out of our rut and make us feel fully alive again where we would live each day with more satisfaction, health, success, joy, love and excitement. ~Megan Thorpe

Defining Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. The terms also identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of certain diseases and other health problems.

Definitions for Adults

For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are determined by using weight and height to calculate a number called the "body mass index" (BMI). BMI is used because, for most people, it correlates with their amount of body fat.An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight.An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.

Height Weight Range BMI Considered 5' 9"124 lbs or lessBelow 18.5Underweight125 lbs to 168 lbs18.5 to 24.9Healthy weight169 lbs to 202 lbs25.0 to 29.9Overweight203 lbs or more30 or higherObeseBMI is just one indicator of potential health risks associated with being overweight or obese. Two other predictors:The individual's waist circumference (because abdominal fat is a predictor of risk for obesity-related diseases).Other risk factors the individual has for diseases and conditions associated with obesity (for example, high blood pressure or physical inactivity).

Obesity is common, serious and costly

More than one-third of U.S. adults (35.7%) are obese.

The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight.

Research has shown that as weight increases to reach the levels referred to as "overweight" and "obesity,"* the risks for the following conditions also increases:Coronary heart diseaseType 2 diabetesCancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)Hypertension (high blood pressure)Dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides)StrokeLiver and Gallbladder diseaseSleep apnea and respiratory problemsOsteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint)Gynecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility)

Obesity affects some groups more than others

Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity (49.5%) compared with Mexican Americans (40.4%), all Hispanics (39.1%) and non-Hispanic whites (34.3%)Being overweight is generally caused by the intake of more calories than are expended by the body. Factors that may contribute to this imbalance include:Alcoholism Eating disorders (such as binge eating) Genetic predisposition Hormonal imbalances (e.g. hypothyroidism) Insufficient or poor-quality sleep Limited physical exercise and sedentary lifestyle Poor nutrition Metabolic disorders, which could be caused by repeated attempts to lose weight by weight cycling Overeating Psychotropic medication (e.g. olanzapine) Smoking cessation and other stimulant withdrawal Stress

Factors, contThe variety of factors that play a role in obesity make it a complex health issue to address.

Behavior and environment play a large role causing people to be overweight and obese. These are the greatest areas for prevention and treatment actions.

Areas of life affected by obesityRelationships social and intimate


Mental and Emotional Well-beingRelationalThe impact that obesity has on your relationship with your spouse, colleagues, boss, friends, and even your children is huge.

Relational, contThe connection between self esteem and being overweight and its effect on relationships has been much studied. It is very hard on your self esteem to be heavy when the rest of the world, or so it seems, is skinny or lean. We are bombarded every day by images of celebrities in magazines and on TV, and most of them are quite svelte and beautiful. While big can be beautiful, or so some of the ads or songs say, it does not always feel beautiful.

ChildrenOverweight children are more like to face bullying and isolation among their peers. Even though school officials continue to crack down on bullying and preach acceptance, children and teens can still be incredibly cruel. Often, overweight students are targeted and face open hostility and social rejection.

OccupationalYou nailed a phone interview for a new job. But once you meet your prospective boss in person, things go downhill quickly. Either your meeting is cut short or youre abruptly told the position has been filled.

The scenario is an all-too-familiar one for a number of overweight people who have experienced weight-based discrimination in the workforce. While many victims of the bias have suspected their appearance has been hurting their careers.

Weight-based discrimination consistently affects every aspect of employment, from hiring to firing, promotions, pay allocation, career counseling and discipline. The bias appears to be most prominent during the hiring process, when an employer knows a potential employee the least and therefore is most likely to be influenced by stereotypes (such as fat people are lazy).

Occupational contIn 2004, Charles Baum, of Middle Tennessee State University, also reported in the journal Health Economics that obesity could lower a womans annual earnings by as much as 6.2% and a mans by as much as 2.3%.Employers, of course, are concerned about obesity in the workplace because of the associated price tag. Obese employees cost U.S. private companies an estimated $45 billion annually in medical expenditures and work loss.The damning stats dont stop there. Between 1997 and 2004, obese workers filed twice the number of workers compensation claims, had seven times the medical costs and lost 13 times the days of work from work injury or illness compared with other employees - Duke University Medical Until companies stop worrying about health care costs, more laws are passed or societys anti-fat sentiment fades, the discrimination is bound to continue.

Obesity and self-esteem - The vicious circle

Another point to remember is that obesity and self-esteem can become a vicious circle, where obesity creates low self esteem and visa versa. When you have low self esteem you eat to make up for it and so you add on weight, this deals a further blow to your already low self-esteem and it takes on the form of a vicious circle. Your body image is the way you see yourself in the mirror. It can have a large impact on your self-esteem , as what you see may not always reflect reality.

DepressionThe relationship between obesity and depression has always been a contentious issue. Mood states like depression are known to be associated with. Recent research suggests the relationship between depression and obesity is actually a two-way street. Obesity seems to lead to depression and depression seems to lead to obesity.It remains unclear as to the exact relationship between obesity and depression. For people with depression obesity appears to follow as a long-term consequence. Body dissatisfaction and low-esteem are also factors that can lead to depression.AnxietyAccording to research, it is not the obesity itself causing the depression, anxiety or other mood disorders, it is the impact of obesity on physical and emotional well being that affected mental health. Research studies continue to show a correlation between anxiety and obesity, however, there is conflicting data over whether obesity contributes to anxiety problems or anxiety contributes to obesity.

Anxiety disorder can affect anyone, regardless of age, race, shape or size. However, there are researches that are pointing towards a connection between obesity and mental health problems.While some studies say that people who are obese tend to develop panic attacks and other mental health related problems, there are others who say that it really is the other way round.

There are studies that indicate people who have mental health problems tend to become obese -

The rationale is simple; people who are undergoing depression or mental disorders do not feel good about themselves. They tend to be less physically active, and overeat. Therefore, they will be the least motivated to work out, or make a trip to the gym. They tend not to be focused on their physical health, thus making them prone to grow obese.

The debate of whether it was the egg or chicken that came first can go on and on, but there is growing evidence that reveal the link between treatments for anxiety and obesity.

Although it is true that certain medications for mood disorders have a link to obesity (due to side effects), but it does not mean a person should discontinue medications prescribed by a doctor.

Strategies to combat obesityDietExerciseSurgeryReligion/SpiritualityMedicationBehavioral TherapyFad DietsRecommendations that promise a quick fix Dire warnings of dangers from a single product or regimen Claims that sound too good to be true Simplistic conclusions drawn from a complex study Recommendations based on a single study Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organizations Lists of good and bad foods Recommendations made to help sell a product Recommendations based on studies published without review by other researchers Recommendations from studies that ignore differences among ind

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.