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The West and the Changing World Balance Chapter 15 (1 of 1)
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The West and the Changing World Balance

Feb 24, 2016

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The West and the Changing World Balance. Chapter 15 (1 of 1). The World Powers During the Postclassical Error Decline. 1453 Turks conquer the Byzantine Empire What city was defeated to end the Byzantine Empire?. 1258 Abbasids are defeated by Mongols - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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The West and the Changing World Balance

The West and the Changing World BalanceChapter 15 (1 of 1)The World Powers During the Postclassical Error Decline1453Turks conquer the Byzantine Empire

What city was defeated to end the Byzantine Empire?1258Abbasids are defeated by Mongols

What city was destroyed to end Abbasid rule?BaghdadConstantinople

The Fall of the Byzantine Empires capital of Constantinople marks the end of the postclassical period in world historyOver Time, Arab Dominance EndsCan you name a group that controlled the Abbasid empire and made the Abbasid caliphs puppet leaders?By the 1100s, the Abbasid caliphate (which ruled Arab/Muslim empire) was beginning to decline945 = Persians (called Buyids) capture Baghdad, and they run the Abbasid caliphate1258 = Mongols destroy Baghdad and kill the last Abbasid caliph, ending the Abbasid empire1055 = Seljuk Turks defeat the Buyids and run the empireSerfdom in the Middle EastAgriculture suffered as peasants no longer free to farm, had to provide what landlord wantedAs Abbasid empire fell, landlords seized control over peasants, who were reduced to serfdomArabs, who had once dominated trade, started to fall behind, as western Europeans gained on themSecular (non-religious) ideas, such as science and philosophy, were losing out to a focus on religionAs the postclassical era came to a close in the 1400s, the Middle East began being more strict to their Islamic religionOttomans Take Control of Muslim Lands (1453)One reason was because they did not promote tradeThough powerful, Ottomans never became main world superpower like Arabs previously hadWould the Mongols Fill Power Vacuum and Become the Dominant World Power?Decline of Mongols, meant overland trade routes no longer safeBut Mongol rule was relatively short-lived and they began to declineInstead, there was a new focus on finding trade routes by seaSo China, and the New Ming Dynasty, Must Have Emerged As New World Leaders?China did play the role of world leaders, but only for about 50 yearsZheng He (or Chang Ho)From 1405 1433, these Chinese expeditions were led by a Chinese Muslim named Zheng HeMing Dynasty defeated the Mongols in 1368 and sponsored trade expeditionsDespite Zheng Hes Success, China Abruptly Stopped Exploration and Trade in 1433Chinese were still in process of driving out Mongols and building huge capital at Beijing, and expeditions were too costlyConfucians believed the expeditions went against their values (remember looked down on artisans and merchant)

Instead, Ming Dynasty Focused Internally and Within the RegionFocused on getting tribute from neighbors in East Asia

Focused on finishing off the nomadic invaders (such as Mongols) to the north

Focused on building Chinese agriculture

Focused on internal economic developmentThe Power Vacuum Was Left OpenArabs decline after fall of Abbasids as Ottomans werent focused on trade and explorationWho would emerge as the predominant power in the world?China took the lead and looked like next world power, but quickly decided to stop Byzantine Empire gone in eastern Europe, controlled by OttomansThe Door Was Open For Western Europe

Western Europe Unlikely Winners to be Next World Power in 1400sThe Roman Catholic church was under political and theological attackWestern Europe still somewhat behind technologicallyBubonic Plague (Black Death) wiped out 1/3 of its population in the 1300sFamines led to more death and peasant uprisingsTrade Plays Big RoleWhen Mongols had big empire, trade flourished, an western Europe benefitted more than most areaAvoid the MuslimsWestern Europeans wanted trade with Asia, but avoid the Middle East, which led to a search for sea routes to Asia (and the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa were key leaders in the search)In 1291, the Muslims drove out the last Christian Crusaders at Acre, and trade to Asia had to go through the Muslim Middle EastThe Renaissance Begins in 1400The Renaissance was a cultural and intellectual movement which revived the Greco-Roman style, and at first only affected high societyItalian city-states became wealthy and could support the arts and literature, which began to flourishThe Iberian Peninsula joins the Italian city-states in a push for change and innovation

During most of postclassical era, the Muslims had ruled the Iberian PeninsulaThe Iberian Peninsula is where Spain and Portugal are today

A Marriage for the Ages!Ferdinand and Isabella promoted Catholicism and began the Spanish Inquisition to drive out Muslims, Protestants, and JewsIn 1469, Ferdinand and Isabella wed, uniting the Castile and Aragon, the 2 major monarchies on the peninsulaItalians and Portuguese Intensify Efforts to Find Western Sea-Route to AsiaTheir efforts sparked others to try to find a route (such as Columbus 200 years later)Vivaldis Brothers = Italian brothers seeking western sea-route to Asia, but disappeared in 1291Technological Barriers OvercomeBut then the compass and astrolabe (learned from the Arabs, who had learned them from the Chinese) made its way to western EuropeUntil the 1430s, a lack of technology prevented sea travelers from western Europe from exploring past the west coast of Africa

Vasco de GamaI was a Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to India, which allowed Portugal to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. Who am I?

Henry the NavigatorPortugal was 1st European nation to establish an overseas colony (the Azores in 1439)Portuguese prince who was responsible for Portuguese explorations

Spain Follows Portugal to Establish Overseas ColoniesSlaves were imported from northwest Africa to do much of the workThese colonies were set up to produce cash cropsMeanwhile, In the Rest Of the WorldThe two areas are the Americas and the Polynesians living on the Society Islands (Fiji, Tahiti, and Samoa) in the PacificBy that we mean the areas that did not have contact with the rest of the world during the postclassical era

However, changes were going on within each society that would weaken each, and make them susceptible to foreign invasionBecause they were isolated from the rest of the world, America and Polynesia were not affected by outside forces during postclassical eraAmericas

Aztec and Inca were suffering from rebellions and other Native American groups were beginning to emerge and vie for powerPolynesia

Because they developed in isolation, they lacked modern technology and were very vulnerable when the Europeans showed upMore on PolynesiaDuring the Postclassical Era (especially 600 C.E. 1300 C.E.) Polynesians were expanding to new territories (2 of which were Hawaii and New Zealand)Aloha!Polynesians settled Hawaiian islands up until 1400, when migration to stopped (from 1400 to 1778, Hawaii cut off from all societies, including Polynesia)

Politically, Hawaii divided into warlike regional kingdoms

Caste system established (priests and nobles at top, and commoners very low and barred from doing many activities)

Despite outdated technology and no written language the Hawaiians still created a complex cultureThe MaorisPolynesians from Society Island migrated to New Zealand starting in early 700s, and they are called Maoris

Maoris produced the most elaborate Polynesian art and population kept expanding

Like in Hawaii, tribal military leaders and priests held great power (and each tribe had slaves gotten from prisoners of war)

Maoris produced a rich oral tradition and were good at woodworking (no metal, but had vigorous economy by combining imported crops and animals with vegetation native to their new settlements)