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4.A.1 Biomolecules The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. Read chapter 5 and complete the reading guide Watch the following video: http:// www.bozemanscience.com/042-biologo ical-molecules Draw 6 large boxes on your paper
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The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. 4.A.1 Biomolecules The subcomponents of biological.

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Page 1: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. 4.A.1 Biomolecules The subcomponents of biological.

4.A.1 BiomoleculesThe subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence

determine the properties of that molecule.

Read chapter 5 and complete the reading guide

Watch the following video:http://

www.bozemanscience.com/042-biologoical-molecules

Draw 6 large boxes on your paper

Page 2: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. 4.A.1 Biomolecules The subcomponents of biological.

A polymer is a large molecule made from repeating subunits called

monomers.

Page 3: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. 4.A.1 Biomolecules The subcomponents of biological.

a. Structure and function of polymers are derived from the way their monomers are

assembled.

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Monomers are assembled into polymers by a condensation reaction, also called a dehydration

synthesis reaction. This occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a

water molecule.

Page 5: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. 4.A.1 Biomolecules The subcomponents of biological.

Box #1What are polymers made

from?How are polymers assembled? (include the by products of the

reaction)

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Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially

the reverse of the dehydration reaction.

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Nucleic Acids

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In nucleic acids, biological information is encoded in sequences of monomers called

nucleotides.

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Each nucleotide has the following structural components:

• a five-carbon sugar• a phosphate group• a nitrogen base

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Deoxyribose sugar is in DNA and ribose sugar is in RNA.

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The bonds that connect nucleotides are called phosphodiester bonds.

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Phosphodiester bonds form by condensation reactions.

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DNA and RNA differ in function and differ slightly in structure. These structural

differences account for the differing functions.

DNA• Deoxyribose sugar• Thymine• Shape: double helix

RNA• Ribose sugar• Uracil• Shape: single strand

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Box #2Answer the following about

nucleic acids:a. What are the monomersb. What are the structural

components of the monomerc. Differences between DNA and

RNA

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Proteins

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Proteins are derived from polypeptides,

which are polymers built from the same set of 20 amino

acids.

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A functional protein consists of one or more polypeptides twisted, folded, and

coiled into a unique shape.

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An amino acid contains an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R

group attached to a central carbon.

Amino Group Carboxyl

Group

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Amino acids differ in their properties due to differences in their R groups,

also called side chains.

Amino Acids with Electrically Charged Side Chains

Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Lysine Arginine Histidine

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Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds.

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Peptide bonds form from condensation, or dehydration synthesis, reactions.

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A polypeptide chain is the primary structure of the protein.

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The secondary structure of a protein result from hydrogen bonds between amino

acids. Typical secondary structures are a coil called an helix and a folded structure

called a pleated sheet.

helix

pleated sheet

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Tertiary structure is determined by interactions between R groups. These interactions include hydrogen bonds, ionic

bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions. Strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges

may reinforce the protein’s structure.

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Quaternary structure results when two or more polypeptide chains form one

macromolecule.

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Collagen is a fibrous protein consisting of three polypeptides coiled like a rope. Hemoglobin is

a globular protein consisting of four polypeptides: two alpha and two beta chains.

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This loss of a protein’s native structure is called denaturation.

A denatured protein is biologically inactive.

Proteins are affected by changes in:

• pH• Salt concentration• Temperature• Other environmental

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Most proteins probably go through several states on their way to a stable structure. Chaperonins are protein molecules that

assist the proper folding of other proteins.

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Box #3Answer the following about proteins:

a. How are functions determined?b. How many amino acids are there?c. How do amino acids differ?d. What type of bonds link amino acids?

How are the bonds formed?

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Lipids

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Lipids are the one class of large biological molecules that do not form polymers. The most biologically important lipids are fats,

phospholipids, and steroids.

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In general, lipids are nonpolar, having little or no affinity for water. Lipids are

hydrophobic because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar

covalent bonds.

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Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty

acids.

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Fatty acids are bonded to the glycerol molecule by ester bonds.

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The formation of ester linkages is a dehydration synthesis reaction.

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Differences in saturation determine the structure and function of lipids.

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Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms

possible and no double bonds.

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Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds. This results in a bent

structure.

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Phospholipids have polar regions that interact with other polar molecules such

as water. They also have nonpolar regions that do not interact with water.

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Box #4Answer the following about lipids:

a. Why are lipids considered nonpolar?

b. How is structure and function determined for lipids?

c. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars. The monomers of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. Carbohydrate polymers

are called polysaccharides.

Monosaccharide Polysaccharide

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Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O. Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most

common monosaccharide.

Glucose

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Polysaccharides have storage and structural roles. The structure and function

of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of

glycosidic linkages.

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Starch, a storage polysaccharide of plants, is constructed of monomers of glucose. Plants store starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids.

glucose

Starch, made from 1-4 glycosidic linkages

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Glycogen, a storage polysaccharide in animals, is made from highly branched chains of glucose . Glycogen is stored

mainly in liver and muscle cells.

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Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls. Cellulose is a polymer of

glucose, and is not digestible by animals.

glucose

Cellulose, made from 1-4 glycosidic linkages

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Starch vs. Cellulose

Starch, made from 1-4 glycosidic linkages

Cellulose, made from 1-4 glycosidic linkages

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Chitin, a structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods

and the cell walls of many fungi.

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Box #5Answer the following about

carbohydrates:a. What are the monomers and

polymers of carbohydrates?b. How are carbohydrates

formed?c. Describe two functions of

carbohydrates.

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Directionality influences structure and function of polymers. An example is the directionality of

DNA that determines the direction in which complementary nucleotides are added during

DNA synthesis.

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Proteins have an amino end and a carboxyl end.

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The type of bonds between monosaccharides determines their

relative orientation in a carbohydrate. This then determines the secondary

structure of the carbohydrate.

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Box #6How would changes to the

structure a protein change the functionality of the molecule?

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Learning Objectives:

LO 4.1 The student is able to explain the connection between the sequence and the subcomponents of a biological polymer and its properties. [See SP 7.1]

LO 4.2 The student is able to refine representations and models

to explain how the subcomponents of a biological polymer and their sequence determine the properties of that polymer. [See SP 1.3]

LO 4.3 The student is able to use models to predict and justify that changes in the subcomponents of a biological polymer affect the functionality of the molecule. [See SP 6.1, 6.4]