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The Purdue OWL: Citation Chart 1 Category MLA APA CMS General Approach The Modern Language Association (MLA) provides a method for source documentation that is used in most humanities courses. The humanities place emphasis on authorship, so most MLA citation involves recording the author’s name in the physical text. The author’s name is also the first to appear in the “Works Cited” page at the end of an essay. The most recent MLA formatting can be found in the seventh edition of the MLA manual. The American Psychological Association (APA) provides a method for source documentation that is used in most social sciences courses. The social sciences place emphasis on the date a work was created, so most APA citation involves recording the date of a particular work in the physical text. The date is usually placed immediately after the author’s name in the “References” page at the end of an essay. The most recent APA formatting can be found in the sixth edition of the APA manual. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) provides a method for source documentation that is used in most history courses. History places much emphasis on source origins, so footnotes and endnotes are used to demonstrate on‐page where a particular piece of information was derived from. In CMS, a number is assigned to a particular fact in the text, and a footnote or endnote will appear at the bottom of the page linking the source to the text. The most recent CMS formatting can be found in the sixteenth edition of the CMS manual. Citing Books Book citations in MLA generally require the author name, work title, publication city, publisher, year published, and an indication of the publication medium, such as print. Book citations in APA generally require author name, publication year, work title, publication city, and publisher. Book citations in CMS style generally require the author name, work title, publication city, publisher, and publication year. General book format Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. Print. Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. Single author Pollan, Michael. Pollan, M. (2006). Pollan, Michael. Two or three authors Bell, James K., and Adrian A. Cohn. Bell, C., & Cohn A. (1968). Bell, James K. and Adrian A. Cohn. More than three authors Kernis, Michael. et al. Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). Kernis, Michael and Others, More than seven authors Kernis, Michael. et al. Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S…Last Author’s Name (1993). Kernis, Michael and Others, Corporate/ Organization author American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2005). American Psychiatric Association.
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  • ThePurdueOWL:CitationChart

    1

    Category MLA APA CMSGeneralApproach TheModernLanguageAssociation

    (MLA)providesamethodforsourcedocumentationthatisusedinmosthumanitiescourses.Thehumanitiesplaceemphasisonauthorship,somostMLAcitationinvolvesrecordingtheauthorsnameinthephysicaltext.TheauthorsnameisalsothefirsttoappearintheWorksCitedpageattheendofanessay.ThemostrecentMLAformattingcanbefoundintheseventheditionoftheMLAmanual.

    TheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation(APA)providesamethodforsourcedocumentationthatisusedinmostsocialsciencescourses.Thesocialsciencesplaceemphasisonthedateaworkwascreated,somostAPAcitationinvolvesrecordingthedateofaparticularworkinthephysicaltext.ThedateisusuallyplacedimmediatelyaftertheauthorsnameintheReferencespageattheendofanessay.ThemostrecentAPAformattingcanbefoundinthesixtheditionoftheAPAmanual.

    TheChicagoManualofStyle(CMS)providesamethodforsourcedocumentationthatisusedinmosthistorycourses.Historyplacesmuchemphasisonsourceorigins,sofootnotesandendnotesareusedtodemonstrateonpagewhereaparticularpieceofinformationwasderivedfrom.InCMS,anumberisassignedtoaparticularfactinthetext,andafootnoteorendnotewillappearatthebottomofthepagelinkingthesourcetothetext.ThemostrecentCMSformattingcanbefoundinthesixteentheditionoftheCMSmanual.

    CitingBooks BookcitationsinMLAgenerallyrequiretheauthorname,worktitle,publicationcity,publisher,yearpublished,andanindicationofthepublicationmedium,suchasprint.

    BookcitationsinAPAgenerallyrequireauthorname,publicationyear,worktitle,publicationcity,andpublisher.

    BookcitationsinCMSstylegenerallyrequiretheauthorname,worktitle,publicationcity,publisher,andpublicationyear.

    Generalbookformat

    Pollan,Michael.TheOmnivoresDilemma.NewYork:PenguinGroup,2006.Print.

    Pollan,M.(2006).Theomnivoresdilemma.NewYork,NY:PenguinGroup.

    Pollan,Michael.TheOmnivoresDilemma.NewYork:PenguinGroup,2006.

    Singleauthor Pollan,Michael. Pollan,M.(2006). Pollan,Michael.Twoorthreeauthors

    Bell,JamesK.,andAdrianA.Cohn. Bell,C.,&CohnA.(1968).

    Bell,JamesK.andAdrianA.Cohn.

    Morethanthreeauthors

    Kernis,Michael.etal. Kernis,M.H.,Cornell,D.P.,Sun,C.R.,Berry,A.,Harlow,T.,&Bach,J.S.(1993).

    Kernis,MichaelandOthers,

    Morethansevenauthors

    Kernis,Michael.etal. Kernis,M.H.,Cornell,D.P.,Sun,C.R.,Berry,A.,Harlow,T.,&Bach,J.SLastAuthorsName(1993).

    Kernis,MichaelandOthers,

    Corporate/Organizationauthor

    AmericanPsychiatricAssociation. AmericanPsychiatricAssociation.(2005).

    AmericanPsychiatricAssociation.

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    Unknownauthor

    OxfordEssentialWorldAtlas. Oxfordessentialworldatlas.(2001). OxfordEssentialWorldAtlas.

    Twoormoreworksbythesameauthor

    Nochangetonameformat;changenotedbytitle.

    Slechty,P.C.(1997).Slechty,P.C.(2001).

    Nochangetonameformat.

    Twoormoreworksbythesameauthorinthesameyear.

    Nochangetonameformat;changenotedbytitle.

    Slechty,P.C.(1997a).Slechty,P.C.(1997b).

    Nochangetonameformat.

    Authorwithaneditor

    Poston,Ted.ADraftofHistory.Ed.KathleenA.Hauke.

    Poston,T.(2000).AdraftofhistoryK.A.Hauke,(Ed.).

    Poston,Ted.ADraftofHistory.EditedbyKathleenA.Hauke.

    Authorwithatranslator

    Laplace,P.S.APhilosophicalEssayonProbabilities.Trans.F.W.TruscottandF.L.Emory.

    Laplace,P.S.(1951).Aphilosophicalessayonprobabilities.(F.W.Truscott&F.L.Emory,Trans.).

    P.S.Laplace.APhilosophicalEssayonProbabilities.TranslatedbyF.W.TruscottandF.L.Emory.

    Editorwithnoauthor

    ConsequencesofGrowingUpPoor.Eds.G.J.DuncanandJ.BrooksGunn.

    Duncan,G.J.,&BrooksGunn,J.(Eds.).(1997).Consequencesofgrowinguppoor.

    Duncan,G.J.andJ.BrooksGunn,eds.

    Workinananthology

    Harris,Muriel."TalktoMe:EngagingReluctantWriters."ATutor'sGuide:HelpingWritersOnetoOne.Ed.BenRafoth.Portsmouth,NH:Heinemann,2000.2434.Print.

    Harris,Muriel.(2000).Talktome:Engagingreluctantwriters.InBenRafoth(Ed.),Atutorsguide:Helpingwritersonetoone(pp.2434).Portsmouth,NH:Heinemann.

    Harris,Muriel."TalktoMe:EngagingReluctantWriters."InATutor'sGuide:HelpingWritersOnetoOne,editedbyBenRafoth,2434.Portsmouth,NH:Heinemann,2000.

    Editionotherthanfirst

    Helfer,M.S.,R.S.Keme,andR.D.Drugman.TheBatteredChild.5thed.

    Helfer,M.S.,Keme,R.S.,&Drugman,R.D.(1997).Thebatteredchild(5thed.).

    Helfer,M.S.,R.S.Keme,andR.D.Drugman.TheBatteredChild.5thed.

    Multivolumework

    DictionaryoftheHistoryofIdeas.Ed.P.Wiener.4Vols.

    Wiener,P.(Ed.).(1973).Dictionaryofthehistoryofideas(Vols.14).

    Weiner,P.,ed.DictionaryoftheHistoryofIdeas.4vols.

    Encyclopedia/Dictionary

    Posner,Rebecca.RomanceLanguages.TheEncyclopediaBritannica:Macropedia.15thed.1987.Print.

    Posner,R.(1987).RomanceLanguages.InTheencyclopediaBritannica:macropedia(15thed.).

    Citedinendnotesonly.1.TheEncyclopediaBritannica:Macropedia,

    15thed.,s.v.RomanceLanguages.

    Foreword,introduction,

    Duncan,HughDalziel.Introduction.PermanenceandChange:An

    Duncan,H.D.Introduction.InK.Burke,PermanenceandChange:An

    Duncan,HughDalziel.IntroductiontoPermanenceandChange:AnAnatomyof

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    preface,orafterword

    AnatomyofPurpose. AnatomyofPurpose(xiiixliv).UnitedStates:TheBobbsMerrillCompany,Inc.

    Purpose.

    ArticlesinPeriodicals Althoughperiodicalsarecitedsimilarlytomostbooksources,MLAsseventheditionmakessomedistinctionsspecifictoperiodicals.

    InAPAperiodicalcitation,authorsarenamedbytheirlastnamefollowedbyinitials;thepublicationyeargoesbetweenparenthesesandisfollowedbyaperiod.Thetitleofthearticleiswritteninsentencecase,inwhichonlythefirstwordandpropernounsarecapitalized.Theperiodicaltitleiswrittenintitlecaseandisfollowedbythevolumenumber,which,withthetitle,isalsoitalicizedorunderlined.

    CMSperiodicalcitationsincludeauthorname,articletitle,publicationtitle,publicationdate,andissueinformation.CMSalsorequirescitationofaURLifthejournalwasaccessedonline.

    Magazine Poniewozik,James."TVMakesaTooCloseCall."Time20Nov.2000:7071.Print.

    Poniewozik,J.(2000,November).TVmakesatooclosecall.Time,20,7071.

    Poniewozik,James."TVMakesaTooCloseCall."Time,November20,2000.

    Journalpaginatedbyissue

    Bagchi,Alaknanda."ConflictingNationalisms:TheVoiceoftheSubalterninMahaswetaDevi'sBashaiTudu."TulsaStudiesinWomen'sLiterature15.1(1996):4150.Print.

    Bagchi,A.(1996).Conflictingnationalisms:ThevoiceofthesubalterninMahaswetaDevisBashaiTudu.TulsaStudiesinWomensLiterature(15.1),4150.

    Bagchi,Alaknanda."ConflictingNationalisms:TheVoiceoftheSubalterninMahaswetaDevi'sBashaiTudu."TulsaStudiesinWomensLiterature15.1(1996):4150.

    Dailynewspaper

    Krugman,Andrew."FearofEating."NewYorkTimes21May2007.A1.Print.

    Krugman,A.(2007,May21).Fearofeating.NewYorkTimes,pp.A1.

    Krugman,Andrew."FearofEating."NewYorkTimes,May2007.

    Editorialinnewspaper

    "OfMinesandMen."Editorial.WallStreetJournaleast.ed.24Oct.2003:A14.Print.

    Ofminesandmen(2003,Oct24).[Editorial]TheWallStreetJournaleast,p.A14.

    Citedinnotesonly.1.Editorial,WallStreetJournal,October24,

    2003.Lettertotheeditor

    Hamer,John.Letter.AmericanJournalismReviewDec.2006/Jan.2007:7.Print.

    Hamer,J.(2006/2007,December/January).[Lettertotheeditor].AmericanJournalismReview,7.

    Citedinnotesonly.1.JohnHamer,lettertotheeditor,

    AmericanJournalismReview,December2006/January2007.

    Bookorfilmreview

    Seitz,MattZoller."LifeintheSprawlingSuburbs,IfYouCanReallyCallIt

    Seitz,M.Z.(2007,May30).Lifeinthesprawlingsuburbs,ifyoucanreallycall

    Sietz,MattZoller.ReviewofRadiantCity,DirectedbyGaryBurnsandJimBrown.

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    Living."Rev.ofRadiantCity,dir.GaryBurnsandJimBrown.NewYorkTimes30May2007lateed.:E1.Print.

    itliving[ReviewofthefilmRadiantCity,directedbyGaryBurnsandJimBrown].NewYorkTimes,lateed.:E1.

    NewYorkTimes,May30,2007,Lateedition.

    OnlineSources MLAguidelinesformostonlinesourcesweredevelopedundertheassumptionthatcontentcanbefoundonlineaslongasinformation,suchasauthorandtitle,wereincluded.Therefore,MLAdoesnotrequireaURLlisting.MLAcitationofonlinesourcesdoes,however,askforapublisherorsponsorofthewebpage.Authorsforwebsitesareoftencorporations,orgovernments(Hacker).

    InAPAcitation,onlinesourcesoftenincludewhatareknownasDOIs,ordigitalobjectidentifiers.IfaDOIisavailable,itisusedinplaceofaURL.TheDOIisaserialnumberthatidentifiesthesourceregardlessofURLchanges,anditcanoftenbefoundonthefirstpageofanonlinesource.BeyondtheDOI,APAgenerallycitesauthor,date,pagetitle,sitetitle,availablepagenumbers,andaURLorDOI.

    CMScitationrequirestheURLtobelistedattheendofthecitationbutnotthedatethecontentedwasaccessed.Iftheinternetsourceistimesensitive,includethedateofaccessaftertheURLlistinginparenthesis.CMSdocumentationoftenincludestheuseofDOIs.

    Generalformat

    Author.TitleofSite.Sponsor,Datecreated(usen.d.ifnotgiven).Medium.Dateaccessed.

    Author.(Year[usen.d.ifnotgiven]).Articleorpagetitle.LargerPublicationTitle,volumeorissuenumber.Retrievedfromhttp://urladdress

    Author.DocumentTitle.URLorDOI.

    EntireWebsite

    UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.DrinkingWaterStandards.EPA,8July2004.Web.24Jan.2006

    UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2004,July).Drinkingwaterstandards.RetrievedfromUSEPAwebsitehttp://water.epa.gov/drink

    UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.DrinkingWaterStandards.http://water.epa.gov/drink.

    PagefromWebsite

    Shiva,Vandana.Bioethics:AThirdWorldIssue.Nativeweb.Nativeweb,n.d.Web.22Feb.2006.

    Shiva,V.(2006,February).Bioethics:Athirdworldissue.Nativeweb.Retrievedfromhttp://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shiva.html

    Shiva,Vandana.Bioethics:AThirdWorldIssue.Nativeweb.http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shiva.html.

    PagefromWebsitewithunknownauthor

    MediaGiants.Frontline:TheMerchantsofCool.PBSOnline,2001.Web.7Feb.2006.

    Mediagiants.(2001).Frontline:TheMerchantsofCool.RetrievedfromPBSOnlinehttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/giants/

    MediaGiants.Frontline:TheMerchantsofCool.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/giants.

    Imagefroma Goya,Francisco.TheFamilyofCharles Goya,F.(1800).ThefamilyofCharlesIV. Goya,Francisco.TheFamilyofCharlesIV.

  • ThePurdueOWL:CitationChart

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    Website IV.1800.MuseoNacionaldelPrado,Madrid.MuseoNationaldelPrado.Web.22May2006.

    MuseoNationaldelPrado.Retrievedfromhttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/goya/hd_goya.htm

    MuseoNacionaldelPrado,Madrid,1800.Painting.http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/goya/hd_goya.htm

    Onlinebook Milton,John.ParadiseLost:BookI.Poetryfoundation.org.PoetryFoundation,2008.Web.14Dec.2008.

    Milton,J.(1667).Paradiselost:BookI.PoetryFoundation.Retrievedfromhttp://www.poetryfoundation.org/archive/poem.html?id=174002

    Milton,John.ParadiseLost.CityandDateofOriginalPublication.http://www.poetryfoundation.org/archive/poem.html?id=174002

    Portionofanonlinebook

    Adams,Henry.Diplomacy.TheEducationofHenryAdams.ByAdams.Boston:Houghton,1918.N.pag.Bartleby.com:GreatBooksOnline.Web.8Jan2007.

    Adams,H.(1918).Diplomacy.Theeducationofhenryadams.Bartleby.com:GreatBooksOnline.Retrievedfromhttp://www.bartleby.com/159/8.html

    Adams,Henry.Diplomacy.TheEducationofHenryAdams.Reprintofthe1918edition,Bartleby.com:GreatBooksOnline.http://www.bartleby.com/159/8.html

    Articleinanonlinejournal

    Bent,HenryE."ProfessionalizationofthePh.D.Degree.TheJournalofHigherEducation30.3(1959):140145.Web.5Dec.2008.

    Bent,H.(1959).ProfessionalizationofthePh.D.degree.TheJournalofHigherEducation,30.3,140145.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1978286.

    Bent,HenryE."ProfessionalizationofthePh.D.Degree.TheJournalofHigherEducation30,no.3(1959):140145.AccessedDecember5,2008.http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

    Articleinanonlinemagazine/newspaper

    Bernstein,Mark."10TipsonWritingtheLivingWeb."AListApart:ForPeopleWhoMakeWebsites.AListApartMag.,16Aug.2002.Web.4May2009.

    Bernstein,M.(2002).10tipsonwritingthelivingweb.AListApart:ForPeopleWhoMakeWebsites.Retrievedfromhttp://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

    Bernstein,M.10TipsonWritingtheLivingWeb.AListApartMagazine.August16,2002.http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

    Entireblog Mayer,Caroline.TheCheckout.WashingtonPost,10Jan.2007.Web.19Jan.2007.

    Mayer,C.(2007,January10).Thecheckout.[Weblogpost].Retrievedfromhttp://blog.washingtonpost.com/thecheckout/

    Mayer,Caroline.TheCheckout(blog).http://blog.washingtonpost.com/thecheckout/

    Responseinablog

    Editor,screenname,author,orcompilername(ifavailable).PostingTitle.NameofSite.Versionnumber(ifavailable).Nameofinstitution/organizationaffiliatedwiththesite(sponsororpublisher).

    Writersname.(Dateofpost).Subjectofpost.[Weblogcomment].Retrievedfrom:URLorDOI

    BlogName;EntryTitle,blogentrybyWritersName,Dateofpost.

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    Mediumofpublication.Dateofaccess.

    CDROM Pimpernel.TheAmericanHeritageDictionaryoftheEnglishLanguage.4thed.Boston;Houghton,2000.CDROM.

    Pimpernel.(2000).[CDROM].TheAmericanHeritageDictionaryoftheEnglishLanguage.4thed.

    Pimpernel.TheAmericanHeritageDictionaryoftheEnglishLanguage.4thed.Boston;Houghton,2000.CDROM.

    Email Kunka,Andrew."Re:ModernistLiterature."Messagetotheauthor.15Nov.2000.Email.

    Notincludedinreferences. Citedinnotesonly.1.AndrewKunka,emailmessageto

    author,November15,2000.MultimediaSources MLAformatformultimediasources

    requiresamediumdescriptionattheendofthecitation.Film,DVD,radio,Web,aperformance,andotherdescriptionsshouldbeusedtoindicatethetypeofmultimediathatisbeingreferenced.

    ElectronicsourcesinAPAformatmayincludeadigitalobjectidentifier(DOI)number.WhenaDOIisevident,itmaybeusedinplaceofaURLaddress.AnonlinesourceshouldincludeeitheraDOIoraURL.

    WhencitinganinternetsourceinCMSformat,includeasmuchinformationasisavailableregardingauthor,sitetitle,sitesponsor,andanyavailableURL.AnaccessdateisnotneededinCMSformatting.

    Videoorfilm AnInconvenientTruth.Dir.DavidGuggenheim.Narr.AlGore.Paramount,2006.DVD.

    Guggenheim,D.(Director),&Bender,L.(Producer).(2006).Aninconvenienttruth[DVD].UnitedStates:ParamountHomeEntertainment.

    AnInconvenientTruth.UnitedStates:ParamountHomeEducation,2006.DVD,94min.

    Podcast/YouTube

    Murphy,Beth.TipsforaGoodProfilePiece.Project:Report.YouTube,7Sept.2008.Web.19Sept.2008.

    Murphy,B.(2008,September19).Tipsforagoodprofilepiece.[YouTube].Project:Report.Retrievedfromhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuA2VcdqB9k/

    Murphy,Beth.TipsforaGoodProfilePiece.Project:Report.YouTube.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuA2VcdqB9k/

    Lecture/Publicaddress

    Teplin,LindaA.et.al.EarlyViolentDeathinDelinquentYouth:AProspectiveLongitudinalStudy.AnnualMeetingoftheAmericanPsychologyLawSociety.LaJolla,California.March,2005.Presentation.

    Teplin,L.A.,McClelland,G.M.,Abram,K.M.,&Washburn,J.J.(2005).Earlyviolentdeathindelinquentyouth:aprospectivelongitudinalstudy.[Presentation].PaperpresentedattheAnnualMeetingoftheAmericanPsychologyLawSociety.LaJolla,CA.

    Teplin,LindaA.,GaryM.McClelland,KarenM.Abram,andJasonJ.Washburn.EarlyViolentDeathinDelinquentYouth:AProspectiveLongitudinalStudy.PaperpresentedattheAnnualMeetingoftheAmericanPsychologyLawSociety,LaJolla,CA,March2005.

    OtherSources ThePurdue Brizee,Allen,andElyssaTardiff.Four Brizee,A.,&Tardiff,E.(2010,April7). Brizee,Allen,andElyssaTardiff.FourMain

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    OWL MainComponentsforEffectiveOutlines.PurdueOnlineWritingLab.PurdueUniversity,7April,2010.Web.20Dec.2010.

    Fourmaincomponentsforeffectiveoutlines.PurdueOnlineWritingLab.Retrievedfromhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/01/

    ComponentsforEffectiveOutlines.PurdueOnlineWritingLab.PurdueUniversity.http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/01/

    Governmentpublication

    ContinentalCongress.JournalsoftheContinentalCongress,17741789.WashingtonDC.19041937.

    ContinentalCongress.(17741789).Journalsofthecontinentalcongress.Washington,DC.19041937.

    ContinentalCongress,JournalsoftheContinentalCongress,17741789,EditedbyWorthingtonC.Fordetal.34vols.Washington,DC,190437.

    Dissertation Choi,Mihwa.ContestingImaginariesinDeathRitualsduringtheNorthernSongDynasty.Diss.UniversityofChicago,2008.Web.ContestingImaginariesinDeathRitualsduringtheNorthernSongDynasty.

    Choi,M.(2008).Contestingimaginariesindeathritualsduringthenorthernsongdynasty(Doctoraldissertation).AvailablefromProQuestdatabase.(AAT3300426).

    Choi,Mihwa.ContestingImaginariesinDeathRitualsduringtheNorthernSongDynasty.PhDdiss.,UniversityofChicago,2008.ProQuest(AAT3300426).

    InTextCitations

    CitingBooks

    Likemostsourcedocumentationsystems,MLAusesintextcitationstogivereadersinformationanddirectsreaderstothemorespecificWorksCitedpageshouldareaderwanttopursueasourcefurther.Generally,MLAintextcitationrequiresanauthornameandapagenumberwheretheinformationbeingcitedcanbefound.Citationscanbeformattedinavarietyofways.

    APAaddstoMLAstylebyincludinganauthorname(s),pagenumber(s),anddate.Thedateisgenerallyprovidedparentheticallywhenevertheauthors(s)name(s)is(are)givenwhilepagenumbersalwaysappearattheendofthesentence.Thedateisimportantinsocialsciencebecauseithelpsdemonstratetherelevance(newness)oftheworkbeingcited.

    FootnotesorendnotesareusedwhencitingwithinthetextofaCMSformatteddocument.Thesenotesdonottaketheplaceofthefinalbibliographypage;instead,endnotesandfootnotesworktostrengthenadocumentscredibilitybyprovidingspecificsourceinformationatthebottomofthepageorinaseparatenotessectionforreaderstoreview.FootnotesinCMSstylegenerallyincludetheauthorname,thepublicationtitle,publicationdateandpublisherinformation(ifbeingcitedforthefirsttime),aswellasapagenumber.

    Authornamedinasignalphrase

    PhilosopherStephenC.Pepperreferstothisphenomenonasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(49).

    PhilosopherStephenC.Pepper(1961)referstothisphenomenonasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(p.49).

    PhilosopherStephenC.Pepperreferstothisphenomenonasacumulativecollaborationofevidence.12

    (Matchnumber(12)toendnoteatthebottomofthepage)

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    12.StephenC.Pepper,WorldHypotheses(LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1961),49.

    Authornotnamedinasignalphrase

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(Pepper49).

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(Pepper,1961,p.49).

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence.12

    12.StephenC.Pepper,WorldHypotheses

    (LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1961),49.

    Unknownauthor

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(WorldHypotheses49).

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(WorldHypotheses,1961,p.49).

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence.12

    12.WorldHypotheses,(LosAngeles:

    UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1961),49.Unknownpagenumber

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(Pepper).

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(Pepper,EvidenceandCorroborationsection,para.22).

    Thisphenomenonisbestreferredtoasacumulativecollaborationofevidence.12

    12.StephenC.Pepper,WorldHypotheses,(LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1961).

    Morethanoneworkbythesameauthor

    PhilosopherStephenC.Pepperreferstothisphenomenonasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(WorldHypotheses49),whichhehintstowardinearlierworkaswell(Emergence241).

    PhilosopherStephenC.Pepperreferstothisphenomenonasacumulativecollaborationofevidence(WorldHypotheses,1961,p.49),whichhehintstowardinearlierworkaswell(Emergence,1926,p.241).

    PhilosopherStephenC.Pepperreferstothisphenomenonasacumulativecollaborationofevidence,12whichhehintstowardinearlierworkaswell.13

    12.StephenC.Pepper,WorldHypotheses,(LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1961),49.

    13.StephenC.Pepper,Emergence,TheJournalofPhilosophy23,no.9(1926).

    Twoorthreeauthors

    ShirleyKRoseandIrwinWeisernoteinGoingPublictheimportanceofredefiningexpectationsforfacultywork

    RoseandWeiser(2010)notetheimportanceofredefiningexpectationsforfacultywork(p.3).

    ShirleyKRoseandIrwinWeisernoteinGoingPublictheimportanceofredefiningexpectationsforfacultywork.6

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    (3). 6.ShirleyKRoseandIrwinWeiser,GoingPublic,(Utah:UniversityPress,2010).

    Fourormoreauthors

    Somestudiesthatfocusspecificallyonundergraduateperspectivesofacademicwritingfoundavarietyofapproaches(Andersonetal.11).

    In1990,Anderson,Best,Black,Hurst,Miller,andMillerproducedastudythatfocusedspecificallyonundergraduateperspectivesofacademicwriting,andtheyfoundavarietyofapproachesinplace(p.11).

    Somestudiesthatfocusspecificallyonundergraduateperspectivesofacademicwritingfoundavarietyofapproaches.2

    2.WorthAndersonandOthers,Cross

    CurricularUnderlife:ACollaborativeReportonWayswithAcademicWords,CollegeCompositionandCommunication41,no.1.

    Corporateauthor

    TheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationsstudydemonstratedthesignificantroleofprayerasacopingmechanismforhealth(67).

    Thisstudydemonstratedthesignificantroleofprayerasacopingmechanismforhealth(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation,2011,p.67).

    Thisstudydemonstratedthesignificantroleofprayerasacopingmechanismforhealth.9

    9.AmericanPsychologicalAssociation,NationalTrendsinPrayerUseasaCopingMechanismforHealthConcerns:Changesfrom2002to2007,PsychologyofReligionandSpirituality.

    Authorswiththesamelastname

    Usethefirstinitialtodifferentiate(A.Smith19).

    Usethefirstinitialtodifferentiate(A.Smith,2009,p.19).

    Doesnotapplybecauseendnoteswilldifferentiate.

    Encyclopedia Romancelanguageshaveacurioushistory(RomanceLanguages).

    Romancelanguageshaveacurioushistory(Posner,1987).

    Useendnoteonly,doesnotappearinbibliography.

    1.TheEncyclopediaBritannica:Macropedia,15thed.,s.v.RomanceLanguages.

    Multivolumework

    Usethevolumenumberfollowedbythepagenumberinthecitation,e.g.,(2:119).

    Usethepagenumberanddate;indicatethevolumeinthereferencesectiononly.

    10.PhillipP.Weiner,DictionaryoftheHistoryofIdeas,6vols,(CharlesScribnerandSons,2004).

    Twoormoreworksinthesameparentheses

    Many19thcenturyAmericanauthorsnotedtheimportanceofreligioninconceivingnature(Emerson1123;Thoreau1994).

    Many19thcenturyAmericanauthorsnotedtheimportanceofreligioninconceivingnature(Emerson1836;Thoreau,1862).

    Many19thcenturyAmericanauthorsnotedtheimportanceofreligioninconceivingnature.22

  • ThePurdueOWL:CitationChart

    10

    22.HenryDavidThoreau,Walking,1862;RalphWaldoEmerson,Nature,1836.

    Anentirework

    ThoreausWalkingdemonstratesafascinationwithsauntering.

    ThoreausWalking(1862)demonstratesafascinationwithsauntering.

    ThoreausWalkingdemonstratesafascinationwithsauntering.22

    22.HenryDavidThoreau,Walking,1862.

    Workinananthology

    Usetheselectionsnameandpagenumber,nottheeditor.ThelifeofpovertyinthesouthiscapturedbyHurstonscandidautobiography,FromDustTracksonaRoad(336).

    Citethespecificworkonly,nottheanthologyoritseditor.ThelifeofpovertyinthesouthiscapturedbyHurstonscandidautobiography,FromDustTracksonaRoad(1942).

    19.ZoraNealeHurston,FromDustTracksonaRoad,inTheNortonBookofAmericanAutobiography,ed.JayParini(NewYork:Norton,1999),336.

    MultimediaSources Videoorfilm Citeasintextdocumentusingrelease

    date.TheroleofIrishfolkloreisdepictedincontemporaryfilmssuchasJohnSayless,TheSecretofRoanInish.

    Citeasintextdocumentusingreleasedate.TheroleofIrishfolkloreisdepictedincontemporaryfilmssuchasJohnSayless,TheSecretofRoanInish(1993).

    45.TheSecretofRoanInish,DVD,directedbyJohnSayles(1993;CulverCity,CA:ColumbiaTristarHomeVideo,2000).

    Podcast/YouTube

    Usevideoauthor/podcastnameandgiventitle.ThequirksofspendingbecomeobviouswhenlisteningtoproductionssuchasDavidKesetenbaumspodcast,ABigBridgeintheWrongPlace,onPlanetMoney.

    Usevideo/podcastauthorname,ifknown,title,andpostingdate.ThequirksofspendingbecomeobviouswhenlisteningtoproductionssuchasDavidKesetenbaumspodcast,ABigBridgeintheWrongPlace,onPlanetMoney(2011).

    Treatasadocumentfromawebsite.

    31.DavidKestenbaum,ABigBridgeintheWrongPlace,PlanetMoneyPodcast,NationalPublicRadio,http://www.npr.org/blogs/money

    Lecture/Publicaddress

    TheproblemofviolentdeathamongdelinquentyouthswascarefullydocumentedbyTeplinetal.inanaddressdeliveredin2005attheAnnualMeetingoftheAmericanPsychology

    TheproblemofviolentdeathamongdelinquentyouthswascarefullydocumentedbyTeplinetal.inanaddressdeliveredattheAnnualMeetingoftheAmericanPsychology

    Ifusinganunpublishedlectureoraddress,citeinwritingonly.PresidentObamanotedduringanaddressonAugust1,2011that...

  • ThePurdueOWL:CitationChart

    11

    LawSociety. LawSociety(2005). Ifusingapublishedlectureoraddress,followthisexample:

    41.LindaA.TeplinandOthers,EarlyViolentDeathinDelinquentYouth:AProspectiveLongitudinalStudy,PaperpresentedattheAnnualMeetingoftheAmericanPsychologyLawSociety,LaJolla,CA,March2005.

    OtherSources ThePurdueOWL

    KarlStolleyandAllenBrizeewriteintheOnlineWritingLabatPurdueUniversity,ResearchbasedwritinginAmericaninstitutions,botheducationalandcorporate,isfilledwithrulesthatwriters,particularlybeginners,aren'tawareofordon'tknowhowtofollow(AvoidingPlagiarism).

    KarlStolleyandAllenBrizee(2011)writeintheOnlineWritingLabatPurdueUniversity,ResearchbasedwritinginAmericaninstitutions,botheducationalandcorporate,isfilledwithrulesthatwriters,particularlybeginners,aren'tawareofordon'tknowhowtofollow.

    KarlStolleyandAllenBrizeenote,ResearchbasedwritinginAmericaninstitutions,botheducationalandcorporate,isfilledwithrulesthatwriters,particularlybeginners,aren'tawareofordon'tknowhowtofollow.23

    23.KarlStolleyandAllenBrizee,AvoidingPlagiarism,PurdueOnlineWritingLab,PurdueUniversity,http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/

    Governmentpublication

    AccordingtothePennsylvaniaDepartmentofConservationandNaturalResources,theEmeraldAshBorerinvasioninPennsylvaniahasledtodozensofcountyquarantinesinrecentyears.

    TheEmeraldAshBorerinvasioninPennsylvaniahasledtodozensofcountyquarantinesinrecentyears(PennsylvaniaDCNR,2011).

    27.PennsylvaniaDepartmentofConservationandNaturalResources,BureauofForestryPublications:Coleoptera:Buprestidae:AgrilusplanipennisFairmaire,2011.