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The Progressive Era

Feb 23, 2016

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The Progressive Era. Part one: The Expansion of Education. Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. I. The Expansion of Education. A democracy functions best when its citizens can read and write Most children received a basic education (only 2 % finished high school) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 18

The Progressive EraPart one: The Expansion of EducationLife at the Turn of the Twentieth CenturyA democracy functions best when its citizens can read and writeMost children received a basic education (only 2% finished high school) Farmers children only attended from Nov. to April Many child labor laws were passed around 1900

I. The Expansion of Education

E. The Americanization of immigrants Public schools played a vital role in assimilating immigrants Many immigrants moved here for the opportunity of a free educationLearning to read and write in English prepared immigrants for American citizenship

College enrollment doubled between 1890 and 1910Opportunity for higher ed. set the U.S. apart from other countries Philanthropists made education a possibility for many

II. Expansion of higher education

Immigrants, the poor, and minorities were less likely to receive an education Separate womens universities were established try to segregate African Americans were not allowed to attend most universities A few did allow them: Oberlin, Bates, Bowdoin Several African American universities were established to provide for them: Wilberforce, Howard, Atlanta, etc. Number of African Americans receiving a degree was very small

III. Discrimination in education

IV. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois A. Booker T. Washington thought African Americans should focus on alleviating their economic situation before worrying about their political situation (focus on education). Stressed vocational education and job training as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem

9B. W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African American to earn a PhD from HarvardFought for economic, political, and social equality Founded the Niagara Movement Helped form the NAACP

Part Two: The Jim Crow eraA. Voting restrictions Poll tax Literacy testsGrandfather clauses

Segregation Separation of people by race de facto segregation caused by tradition (common thing, but not by law)Jim Crow laws (de jure by law) laws meant to segregate races and take away rights from African Americans

Segregation

C. Plessy vs. Ferguson The Civil Rights cases overturned the Civil Rights Act (1883)African American Homer Plessy sued for the right to sit wherever he wanted on the train The courts ruled that facilities and services needed to be separate-but-equal Jim Crow laws did not violate the 14th Amendment

D. Violence against African Americans Blacks were forced to follow strict etiquette codes Breeches in these etiquette codes resulted in violenceFrom 1882 to 1892 over 1,200 blacks were lynched Ida B. Wells led an anti-lynching campaign

E. The Great Migration Blacks moved north to escape violence and legal segregation; escape poverty and look for jobsDiscovered de facto segregation Race riots erupted in many cities due to the white fear of job competition

Many African American leaders rose to fight discrimination Booker T WashingtonWEB DuBoisOrganized the NAACP Abolish segregation and discriminationOppose racism Gain civil rights for African Americans

VI. Resisting Discrimination Review yesterdays materialNotes Progressive MovementLabor Unions & Strikes Graphic Organizers

SWBAT Identify the significance of three different strikes/riots, as well as the purpose of labor unions. 4/16I. Reforms needed to clean up problems created by industrialization A. Progressives sought reform in four main areas Social Moral Economic Political

B. Four common goals of Progressives Gov. should be accountable to its citizensGov. should curb the power of wealthy interests Gov. should expand to improve the lives of its citizens Gov. should become efficient and less corrupt

C. Muckrakers Journalists who pointed out the evils of societyUpton Sinclair, The Jungle

A. Poor working conditions needed to be reformed 1. Dangerous working conditions 2. Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits 3. Discrimination against women 4. Child labor

II. Progressive reforms in factories

B. Successful reforms Organizations created to regulate factory working conditions Standardizing an 8 hour work day Passing of child labor laws

C. Progressive impacts on labor unions (strengthened) Knights of LaborAmerican Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers) American Railway Union (Eugene V. Debs)Industrial Ladies Garment Workers Unions

D. Major strikes Haymarket SquareHomestead StrikePullman Strike

A. Local governments B. State governments 1. Referendums and initiatives 2. Recalls In electionsC. In elections 1. Primary Elections2. Direct election of U.S. Senators (17th Amendment) 3. Approval of the secret ballot system III. Progressive accomplishments in government A. Theodore Roosevelts Square Deal B. Anti-trust laws1. Sherman Anti-Trust Act banned any business that restricted trade 2. Clayton Anti-Trust Act expands the Sherman Act 3. Outlaws price-fixing 4. TR broke up holding companies that had monopolies IV. Progressive federal reforms

The Transcontinental RailroadEncourage westward settlementGrown and ExpandJobs availableCheap, run down apartment buildingsUnsanitaryEastern & Southern Europe; AsiaVariety of cultures in America working together

Industry & Progressive Test Review9. Steel making process10. Carnegie-Steel; Morgan Banking; Vanderbilt Railroads; Rockefeller Oil11. Whitney-Cotton Gin; Edison Light Bulb; Ford Assembly Line (in making automobile); Wright Brothers airplane12. Government does not interfere with businesses13. Assembly Line process of manufacturing14. Journalists who exposed bad conditions of society15. Progressive Movement16. Safer work place conditions; better hours; better pay (make life better for citizens)9-1617. Vote on bill to become a law18. Directly by people19. Public officials20. Primary Election21. Lewis Hine22. Sam Gompers23. Attain voting rights for women (19th amendment)24. Square Deal25. land/job opportunities

17-2526. Land/job opportunities 27. 5th & 14th 28. Separate but Equal is legal29. Booker T Vocational education; WEB DuBois demand political, economic, social equality30. DuBois31. Washington32. Faced greater discrimination thru Jim Crow33. Laws that forced segregation34. Ida B. Wells26-34.