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THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...

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Page 1: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...

336 Florida state horticultural society,


1. Barrett, O. W. 1928. The Tropical Crops. The Mac-

millan Co., New York. 2. Campbell, C. W. 1965. Sub-Tropical Experiment

Station. Unpublished correspondence. 3. Popenoe, W. 1920. Manual of Tropical and Sub

tropical Fruits. The Macmillan Co., New York. 4. Popenoe, W. 1954. Unpublished correspondence. 5. Popenoe, W. 1965. Interesting Indigenous Fruits of

Guatemala. The Garden Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pages 44-46,

Mar, /Apr. 6. Ruehle, G. D. 1958. Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub

tropical Florida Fruits. Bulletin 156A. Agricultural Ex tension Service, Gainesville, Florida.

7. Whitman and Biebel. 1962. Rare Fruit Council Ac tivities 1961-62. Fla. State Hort. Society, Vol. 75.

THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS


Julia F. Morton

The jackfruit (also known as jack or jak) is

an excellent example of a food prized in some

areas of the world and allowed to go to waste in

others. Where it is truly superfluous in the pres

ence of an abundance of popular fruits, as in

South Florida, its neglect is reasonable; but in

other warm regions, wherever there is a need for

nutriment or variety in the diet, knowledge of its

preparation and products can enlarge its accept

ability and economic value. As a source of fine

timber alsSf the tree deserves consideration by

foresters in Tropical America. 0. W. Barrett

wrote in 1928; "The jaks ... are such large and

interesting fruits and the trees so well-behaved

that it is difficult to explain the general lack of

knowledge concerning them" (3).

No one knows the jackfruit's place of origin

but it is believed indigenous to the rainforests of

the Western Ghats (36). It is cultivated at ele

vations below 4,500 ft. throughout India, Burma,

Ceylon, Malaya, southern China and the East

Indies and to a limited extent in Queensland,

Australia, and Mauritius. In Africa, it is often

planted in Kenya, Uganda and former Zanzibar

but is unsuccessful in Nyasaland. Though

planted in Hawaii prior to 1888 (26), it is still

rare there and in other Pacific islands (46) as it

is in most of tropical America and the West

Indies. It was introduced into northern Brazil

in the mid-seventeenth century and is more popu

lar there and in Surinam than elsewhere in the

New World. In 1782, plants from a captured

French ship destined for Martinique were taken

to Jamaica (36) where the tree is now common,

and about 100 years later the jackfruit made its

*Syns.: A. integrifolius, A. integrifola, A. integer, A.

integra, of various authors (36). lDirector, Morton Collectanea, University of Miami, Coral

Gables, Fla.

appearance in Florida, presumably imported by

the Reasoner nursery from Ceylon (30). The

United States Department of Agriculture's

Report on the Conditions of Tropical and Semi-

tropical Fruits in the United States in 1887

states: "There are but few specimens in the

State. Mr. Bidwell, at Orlando, has a healthy

young tree, which was killed back to the ground,

however, by the freeze of 1886" (54). There are

today less than a dozen bearing jackfruit trees in

South Florida and these are valued mainly as

curiosities. Many seeds have been planted over

the years but few seedlings have survived,

though the jackfruit is hardier than its close

relative, the breadfruit.


The tree is handsome and stately, 30 to 70 ft.

tall (6Q)f with glossy, somewhat leathery (40)

leaves to 9 in. long (19), oval on mature wood,

sometimes oblong or deeply lobed on young shoots

(46). All parts contain a sticky, white latex.

Short, stout flowering twigs emerge from the

trunk and large branches, or even from the soil-

covered base of very old trees. The tree is mono

ecious: tiny male fllowers are borne in oblong

clusters 2 to 4 in. in length; the female flower

clusters are elliptic or rounded (40). Largest of

all tree-borne fruits, the jackfruit may be 8 in.

(43) to 3 ft. long (46) and 6 in. to 20 in. wide

(19) and the weight ranges from 10 to 40 lbs. or

more. Some are reported to attain as much as 100

or 110 lbs. (16) but Singh et al. gives 60 lbs. as

the maximum (64). Naik says "an individual

fruit weighing even up to 80 lbs. is not unknown"

(45). The "rind" or exterior of the compound or

aggregate fruit is green (53) or yellow when

ripe* (19) and composed of numerous hard, cone-

like points attached to a thick and rubbery, pale-

Page 2: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


yellow or whitish wall. The interior consists of

large "bulbs" (fully developed perianths) of

yellow, banana-flavored flesh (constituting 25 to

40% of the fruit's weight) (38), massed among

narrow ribbons of thin, tough undeveloped peri

anths (or perigones), and a central, pithy core.

Each bulb encloses a smooth, oval, light-brown

"seed" (endocarp) covered by a thin, white

membrane (exocarp). The seed is % to Wz in.

long and V2 to % in. thick and is white and

crisp within. There may be 100 or up to 500

seeds in a single fruit (33). When fully ripe, the

unopened jackfruit emits a strong and disagree

able odor, resembling that of decayed onions,

while the pulp of the opened fruit smells of pine

apple and banana.

Propagation, Culture and Season

The tree flourishes in rich, deep, well-drained

soil; will grow, but more slowly (64) and not as

tall (31) in shallow limestone (67); is sensitive

to frost in its early life; cannot tolerate drought

or "wet feet" (64). If the roots touch water, the

tree will not bear fruit or may die (28). It is

a fairly rapid grower, reaching 58 ft. in height

in lRQfi m 1896. e

in August, 1960.

thC °1?eS*f jackfr«it trees in Fl<»»da, planted by the late W. A. Hobbs who settled in Coconut Grove many fruits on the upper branches as well as these within easy reach when this picture was taken

—Photo by Julia Morton

Page 3: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


and 28 in. in girth in 20 years in Ceylon (67). It

is said to live as long as 100 years (25). However,

in Thailand, it is recommended that alternate

rows be planted every 10 years so that 20-year-

old trees may be routinely removed from the plan

tation and replaced by a new generation (50).

Propagation is usually by seeds which can be

kept no longer than a month before planting (25).

Germination requires 3 to 8 weeks but is expe

dited by soaking seeds in water for 24 hrs. They

may be sown in situ or may be nursery-germinat

ed and moved when no more than 4 leaves have

appeared (33). A more advanced seedling, with

its long and delicate tap root, is very difficult to

transplant successfully. Seedling jackfruit trees

in general may take from 4 to 14 years to bear

and their fruits are highly variable. Budding and

grafting attempts have been mostly unsuccessful

(45) though Ochse considers the modified Fork-

ert method of budding feasible (47). Inarching

has been practiced and advocated but presents

the same problem of transplanting after separa

tion from the scion-parent. To avoid this and

yet achieve consistently early bearing (at about

4 1/2 years in most varieties) of fruits of known

quality, air-layers produced with the aid of

.025% Seradix A or .025% alphanaphthalene

acetic acid, are now being distributed in India

(62). In Florida, cuttings of young wood have

been rooted under mist.

In plantations, trees are set 40 ft. apart (64).

Young plantings require protection from sun-

scald and from grazing animals, hares, deer, etc.

(29, 67). Seeds in the field may be eaten by rats

(76). Firminger describes the quaint practice of

raising a young seedling in a 3- to 4-ft. bamboo

tube, then bending over and coiling the pliant

stem beneath the soil, with only the tip showing.

In 5 years, such a plant is said to produce large

and fine fruits on the spiral underground (31).

In Travancore, the whole fruit is buried, the

many seedlings which spring up are bound to

gether with straw and they gradually fuse into

one tree which bears in 6 to 7 years (28).

In Asia, jackfruits ripen principally from

March to June, April to September, or June to

August, depending on the climatic region (45),

with some off-season crops from September to

December (64), or a few fruits at other times

of the year (45). In the West Indies, I have seen

many ripening in June; in Florida the season is

late summer and fall. In Jamaica, an "X" is

sometimes cut in the apex of the fruit to speed

ripening and improve flavor (29). After harvest

ing, the fruiting twigs should be cut back to the

trunk or branch to induce flowering the next sea

son (33). In the Cachar district of Assam, pro

duction of female flowers is stimulated by slash

ing the tree with a hatchet, the shoots emerging

from the wounds; and branches are lopped every

3 or 4 years to maintain fruitfulness (29). Horti

culturists in Madras have found that hand-

pollination produces fruits with more of the

fully developed bulbs than does normal wind-

pollination (56). Little attention has yet been

given to the tree's fertilizer requirements (64).

Pests and Diseases

Principal insect pests are the shoot-borer

caterpillar, mealy bug and jack scale (64).

Others are the stem and fruit borer (Margaronia

caecalis) ; brown weevil (Ochyromera artocarpio)

(29) ; the beetle, Batocera rufomaculata; and

the larvae of the moth, Perina nuda (29).

Diseases, which are of minor importance, include

pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor) (48),

stem rot, fruit rot and male inflorescence rot

(64) caused by Rhizopus artoca/rpi, and brown

leaf spot due to Phomopsis artocarpina (33).


Some jackfruits have soft flesh, considered too

mushy, sweet and insipid when ripe; those of

another type have firm or crisp flesh and more

pronounced flavor; and there -is a small-fruited

variety called Rudrakshi with a relatively smooth

rind and flesh of inferior quality (64). Macmillan

identifies the two principal types of Ceylon as

the Waraka, with a firm rind, and the less sweet

Vela with a soft rind, and adds that the Peni-

waraka, or honey jak, has sweet pulp; the Kuru-

waraka has small, rounded fruits (41). Drury and

others acclaim the honey jak as the sweetest and

best (28, 30).* The Vela predominates in the

West Indies (3). Firminger describes two

types, the Khuja, green, hard and smooth,

with juicy pulp and small seeds; the Ghila, rough,

soft, with thin pulp, not very juicy, and large

seeds (31). Dutta says Khujja or Karcha has

pale-brown or occasionally pale-green rind, and

*Dr. David Fairchild, writing of this variety in Ceylon, describes the rind as dark-green in contrast to the golden-

yellow pulp when cut open for eating (30) but the fruits of his own tree in Coconut Grove and those of the Matheson tree which he maintained were honey jacks are definitely

yellow when ripe.

Page 4: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


pulp as hard as an apple; Ghila or Ghula is usu

ally light-green, occasionally brownish, and has

soft pulp, sweet or acidulously sweet. He de

scribes 8 varieties, only one with a name. This is

Hazari, similar to Rudrakshi, above (29). In the

Wealth of India, it is stated that there are "two

common varieties: Kapa and Barka; the former

has a sweet fleshy and crisp pericarp [perianth],

and the latter, which is considered inferior, has

a thin mucilaginous and sour pericarp [perianth].

Several variations occur within these two types"

(74). These are apparently the same two types

cited by Munshi: Kapiya, which must be cut with

a knife; Berka, which can be broken open with

the hands (44). The equivalent types in Thailand

are known as Kanoon Nang and Kanoon Lamood

(50). The Singapore or Ceylon jack, a remark

ably early bearer producing fruit in 18 months to

2 1/2 years (33, 45) from transplanting, was be

ing set out extensively in India in 1949 (45). In

1961, the Horticultural Research Institute at

Saharanpur reported the acquisition of air-

layered plants of the excellent varieties Safeda,

Khaja, Bhusila, Bhadaiyan and Handia and

others. In Assam, nurserymen have given names

such as Mammoth, Everbearer, and Rose-scented

to preferred types (29). If the last of the three

names can be taken literally, this variety should

Page 5: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


be worthy of introduction. It is often stated that

any jackfruits grown above 4,000 ft. are poor and

usable only for cooking (45).


In South India, the jackfruit is a popular food

ranking next to the mango and banana in total

annual production (33). There are more than

100,000 trees in backyards and grown for shade

in areca palm, coffee, pepper and cardamon plan

tations (64). The total area planted to jackfruit

in all India is calculated at 63,130 acres (62).

Each tree may bear from 20 to 250 fruits per

year (64), or even, as Dutta says, a fully mature

tree may produce as many as 500 (29). Govern

ment horticulturists are promoting the planting

of far more jackfruit trees along highways,

waterways and railroads to add to the country's

food supply.

There are 11,000 acres planted to jackfruit in

Ceylon, mainly for timber, with the fruit a

much-appreciated by-product (67). Away from

the Far East, the. jackfruit has never gained the

acceptance accorded the breadfruit (except in

settlements of people of East Indian origin).

This is due largely to the odor of the ripe fruit

(73) which in some countries is fed to cattle.

Even in India there is some resistance to the

jackfruit, attributed to the belief that overindul

gence in it causes digestive ailments (64). Burk-

ill declares that it is the raw, unripe fruit that

is astringent and indigestible (16). The ripe

fruit is somewhat laxative; if eaten in excess

will cause diarrhea (53).

Culinary Uses

Westerners generally will find the jackfruit

most acceptable in the full-grown but unripe

stage, when it has no objectionable odor (71) and

excels cooked green breadfruit and plantain. The

fruit at this time is simply cut into large chunks

for cooking, the only handicap being its copious

gummy latex which accumulates on the knife and

the hands unless they are first rubbed with salad

oil (38). The chunks are boiled in lightly salted

water until tender, when the really delicious flesh

is cut from the rind and served as a vegetable,

including the seeds which, if thoroughly cooked,

are mealy and agreeable. The latex clinging to

the pot may be removed by rubbing with oil.

The flesh of the unripe fruit has been experi

mentally canned in brine (5) or with curry (38).

It may also be dried and kept in tins for a year

(6). Tender young fruits may be pickled (53),

with or without spices (6, 38).

If the jackfruit is allowed to ripen, the bulbs

and seeds may be extracted outdoors; or, if in

doors, the odorous residue should be removed

from the kitchen at once. The bulbs may then be

enjoyed raw or cooked (with coconut milk or

otherwise), preserved as chutney (8), jam (7),

paste (71) or "leather", or "papad" (5), or

canned in sirup made with sugar or honey (7)

with citric acid added (38). The canned product is

more attractive than the fresh pulp and is some

times called "vegetable meat" (14). The ripe

bulbs are mechanically pulped to make jackfruit

nectar (38) or reduced to concentrate or powder

(10). If the bulbs are boiled in milk, the latter

when drained off and cooled will congeal and

form a pleasant, orange-colore.d custard (31). A

delicious ice cream is made from jackfruit in

Brazil (30). By a method patented in India (38),

the ripe bulbs may be dried, fried in oil and

salted for eating like potato chips (64). Candied

jackfruit pulp in one-pound boxes was being

marketed in Brazil in 1917 (27). Improved meth

ods of preserving and candying jackfruit pulp

have been devised at the Central Food Techno

logical Research Institute, Mysore, India (8).

The bulbs, fermented and distilled, produce a

potent liquor (39, 73).

The seeds, which appeal to all tastes (4),

may be boiled or roasted (5) and eaten, or boiled

and preserved in sirup like chestnuts (64). They

have also been successfully canned in brine, in

curry, and. like baked beans, in tomato sauce

(9). They are often included in curried dishes.

Roasted, dried seeds are ground to make a flour

(5, 64) which is blended with wheat flour for

baking (38). Raw jackfruit seeds are indigestible

due to the presence of a powerful trypsin inhibi

tor. This element is destroyed by boiling or bak

ing (58).

Where large quantities of jackfruit are avail

able, it is worthwhile to utilize the inedible

portion, and the rind has been found to yield a

fair jelly with citric acid (60). A pectin extract

can be made from the peel, undeveloped peri

anths and core (35) or just from the inner rind;

and also a sirup usable for tobacco curing (12).

Tender jackfruit leaves and young male flower

clusters may be cooked and served as vegetables


Page 6: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


Storage and Freezing

Jackfruits turn brown and deteriorate quickly

after ripening (71). Cold storage trials indicate

that ripe fruits can be kept for 3 to 6 weeks at

52 to 55° F. and relative humidity of 85 to 95%.

Ripe bulbs, sliced and packed in sirup with added

citric acid and frozen, retain good color, flavor

and texture for one year (61). Canned jackfruit

retains good quality for 63 weeks at room tem

perature (75 to 80° F.) (13), with only 3% loss

of B-carotene (59). When frozen, the canned

pulp keeps well for two years (7).

Food Value

FRUIT PULP: The following composition is

reported by Watt, Merrill et al. for 100 grams of

edible portion: water, 72.0%; food energy, 98 cal

ories; protein, 1.3 g.; fat, .3 g.; carbohydrate:



Figure 3.--A whole jackfruit, weighing: 9% lbs., and a quarter cut from another which weighed 13V4 lbs from Dr ivid Fairchild's tree at the Kampong, Coconut Grove, July, 1956. At the lower right are two "bulbs'' one with th™ un eloped perianths peeled away from the edible pulp; also three whole seeds and one cut open

—Photo by Kendal and Julia Morton

Page 7: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


total, 25.4 g., fiber, 1.0 g.; ash, 1.0 g.; calcium, 22

mg.; phosphorus, 38 ing.; sodium, 2 mg.; potas

sium, 407 mg.; thiamine, .03 mg.; niacin, 4 mg.;

ascorbic acid, 8 mg. (72).

SEEDS: The seeds are high in starch, low in

calcium and iron (53). Brown shows the com

position as follows: Fresh: moisture, 57.77%;

ash, 1.25%; phosphorus as P2O5, 0.23%; calcium

as CaO, 0.55%; iron as Fe2O3, 0.002%. Oven-

dried: ash, 2.96%; phosphorus as P2O5, 0.54%;

calcium as CaO, 0.13%; iron as Fe203, 0.005%.

Ash: phosphorous as P2O5, 18.24%; calcium as

CaO, 4.39%; iron as F2O3, 0.17% (15).

Sundry Uses

Jackfruit rind is a good stock feed (64), as

are the leaves (22) which are said to be fatten

ing (28). In India, the leaves are used as food

wrappers in cooking (45) and they are also

Figure 4.—The sticky, white latex drips freely from the freshly cut stem of the jackfruit. —Photo by Julia Morton

Page 8: THE JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.):* ITS CULTURE ...


fastened together for use as plates (64). The

latex serves as birdlime (34), alone or mixed

with Ficus sap and oil from Schleichera trijuga

(22). The heated latex is employed as a house

hold cement (22) for mending chinaware (53)

and earthenware (64) and to caulk boats (29)

and holes in buckets (64). The chemical con

stituents of the latex have been reported in

Manila (70). It is not a substitute for rubber but

contains 82.6 to 86.4% resins which may have

value in varnishes (74). Its bacteriolytic activity

is equal to that of papaya latex (57). Dried jack-

fruit latex yields artostenone, convertible t o

artosterone, a compound with marked androgonic

action (74). Mixed with vinegar, the latex pro

motes healing of abscesses, snakebite and reduces

glandular swellings. The root is a remedy for

skin diseases and asthma (53). An extract of the

roots is taken for fevers (16) and diarrhea

(12). The ash of jackfruit leaves, burned with

corn and coconut shells (16), is used alone or

mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers (53). The

bark is made into poultices, heated leaves are

placed on wounds. The wood has a sedative

property; its pith is said to produce abortion

(16). The seed starch is given for biliousness

and the roasted seeds are regarded as aphro disiac (39, 53).


Jackwood is an important timber in Ceylon,

and to a lesser extent in India; some is exported

to Europe (34). It changes with age from

orange or yellow to brown (74) or dark-red,

weighs 33-44 lbs. per cu. ft. (34), is termite-

proof (34, 78), fairly resistant to fungal and

bacterial decay (25), seasons without difficulty

(74), resembles mahogany (55) and is superior

to teak (34) for furniture, construction, turnery,

masts, oars, implements (22), brush backs and

musical instruments (74). Palaces were built of

jack wood in Bali and Macassar and the limited

supply was once reserved for temples in Indo-

China (16). Its strength is 75 to 80% that of

teak (74). Though sharp tools are needed to

achieve a smooth surface (34), it polishes beau

tifully (40). Roots of old trees are greatly prized

for carving and picture-framing (22, 28). From

the sawdust of jackwood or chips of the heart-

wood, boiled with alum, there is derived a rich

yellow dye commonly used for dyeing silk and

the cotton robes of Buddhist priests (22, 74).

Besides the yellow colorant, morin, the wood

contains the colorless cycmomaclurin (25), and

a new yellow coloring matter, artocavpin was

reported by workers in Bombay in 1955 (25).

Flavones and other constituents have been iso

lated by Dave and co-workers in Poona (23, 24,

25). There is only 3.3% tannin in the bark (74),

which is occasionally made into cordage or

cloth (53).


1. Alston, A.H.G. 1938. The Kandy Flora. Ceylon Gov ernment Press, Colombo, p. 35.

2. Baker, M. F. 1956. Common Exotic Trees of South Florida. Univ. of Fla. Press, Gainesville, pp. 233-234.

3. Barrett, O. W. 1928. The Tropical Crops. The Mac-millan Co., N.Y. pp. 199-200.

4. Benthall, A. P. 1946. Trees of Calcutta and Its Neighborhood. Thacker Spink & Co. (1933) Ltd., Calcutta pp. 399-401.

5. Bhatia, B. S. and G. Lai. 1956. Development of Products from Jack Fruit: PL VI. Canned Green Jack Fruit in Brine and in Curry. Indian Food Packer 10(8) : 7-8.

6. Bhatia, B. S. and G. Lai. 1956. Development of Products from Jack Fruit: Pt. VII. Dried Green Jack Fruit and Jack Pickle. Indian Food Packer 10(9) : 13-14.

7. Bhatia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa and G. Lai. 1955. De velopment of Products from Jack Fruit. Pt. I. Canned Jack Fruit; Frozen Canned Jack Fruit and Jack Fruit Jam. Indian Food Packer 9(9) : 8-12.

8. Bahtia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa and G. Lai. 1955. De velopment of Products from Jack Fruit: Pt. II. Jack Fruit Preserve, Candy, Chutney and Dried Bulbs. Indian Food Packer 9(11) : 7-9.

9. Bhatia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa, and G. Lai, 1956. De velopment of Products from Jack Fruit: Pt. III. Canned Jack Seeds in Brine, Tomato Sauce and Curry. Indian Food Packer 10(1): 9-10, 12.

10. Bhatia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa and G. Lai. 1956. Development of Products from Jack Fruit. Pt. IV. Jack Fruit Concentrate, Powder, Pulp, Toffee and Squash. Indian Food Packer 10(6) : 11-12, 18.

11. Bhatia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa, and G. Lai. 1956. Development of Products from Jack Fruit: Pt. V. Dried Jack Seeds and Flower, Roasted Nut and Jack "Papad" ("Papar"). Indian Food Packer 10(7) : 9.

12. Bhatia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa and G. Lai. 1960 Preparation of Pectin, Pectin Extract and Syrup from Jack Fruit Rind. Food Sci. 9(12) : 421.

13. Bhatia, B. S., G. S. Siddappa and G. Lai. 1956. Some Physico-chemical Changes in Canned Jack-fruit Du ring Storage. J. Sci. & Indus. Res. 15C(4): 91-95.

14. Bhutiani, R. C, Editor and Compiler. 1956. Fruit and Vegetable Preservation Industry in India. Cent. Food Tech. Res. Inst., Mysore, p. 52.

15. Brown, W. H. 1951. Useful Plants of the Philip pines. Vol. 1. Tech. Bui. 10. Phil. Dept. Ag. & Nat. Res., Manila, pp. 463-467.

16. Burkill, I. H. 1935. Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Vol. 1. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, pp. 253-256.

17. 1951. Ceylon Jack Fruit Can be Grown in India. Indian Food Packer 5 (12): 17-18.

18. Cook, O. F. and G. N. Collins. 1903. Economic Plants of Porto Rico. U. S. Nat'l Mus., Smith, Inst., Washington, p. 86.

19. Corner, E. J. H. 1951. Wayside Trees of Malaya. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Gov't. Ptg. Off., Singapore, pp. 654-655.

20. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1960. Progress Reports. J. Sci. & Indus. Res. 19A(6) : 293.

21. Dahlgren, B. E. Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. 1947. Pop. Ser. Bot. 26. Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus., Chicago, p. 7.

22. Dastur, J. F. 1951. Useful Plants of India and Pakistan. 2nd ed. D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co., Ltd., Bombay, p. 36.

23. Dave, K. G., R. Mani and K. Venkataraman. 1961. The Colouring Matters of the Wood of Artocarpus inte-grifolia. Pt. III. Constitution of Artocarpin and Synthesis of Tetrahydroartocarpin Dimethyl Ether. J. Sci. &. Indus. Res. 20B (3) : 112-121.

24. Dave, K. G., S. A. Telang and K. Venkataraman. 1960. The Colouring Matters of the Wood of Artocarpus

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integrif olia: Pt. II. Artocarpetin, a New Flavone, and Arto-carpanone, a New Flavanone. J. Sci. & Indus. Res. 19B

(12) : 470-476. 25. Dave, K. G. and K. Venkataraman. 1956. The

Colouring Matters of the Wood of Artocarpus integrif olia: Pt. I. Artocarpin. J. Sci. & Indus. Res. 15B (4) : 183-190.

26. Degener, O. 1946. Flora Hawaiiensis, 2nd ed. Author, Riverdale, N.Y. Fam. No. 96 (2 pp.)

27. Dorsett, P. H., A. D. Shamel and W. Popenoe. 1917. Navel Orange of Bahia, with Notes on Some Little-known Brazilian Fruits. Bui. 445. U.S.D.A. Bur. PI. Indus., Wash ington, p. 19.

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