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THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS (Introduction) .An ancient analog computer designed to ... Honeywell 200

Sep 06, 2018







    U3A Presentation J. Martin 2017 1

    Hillingdon U3A Computer Group

  • 500BC. Counting Boards & Abacus.

    Tools for simple arithmetic processes.

    About 50BC. TheAntikythera mechanism.

    An ancient analog computer designed to

    calculate astronomical positions.

    1642. Pascals Wheel could add and subtract two

    numbers directly and multiply and divide by


    1650s. The Slide Rule. A mechanical

    analog computer used primarily for

    multiplication and division, and also for

    functions such as roots, logarithms and


    Early Calculating Tools


  • 1800s Programming

    1801. Joseph-Marie Jacquard developed a loom.


  • 1820s Computers (Mechanical)

    1820. Charles Babbage's difference engine was created to calculate a series of

    values automatically.


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  • 1890s Computers

    1891. Herman Hollerith invented a punch card device which was used to tabulate the

    US 1890 census data in only one year. The 1880 census had taken eight years.

    1896. Hollerith started his own business selling his invention, founding the

    Tabulating Machine Company. 6

  • 1910s Computers

    1911. Hollerith's, Tabulating Machine Company, merged with the International Time

    Recording Company and the Computing Scale Company to form the Computing

    Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR).


  • 1920s Computers

    1924. Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation

    (CTR) renamed International Business Machines

    Corporation, later to be abbreviated IBM.

    1928. IBM introduced an 80-column punched card


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  • 1930s Computers

    1938. William Hewlett and David Packard founded Hewlett-Packard (HP) and

    produced their first product.


  • 1939. Bell Telephone Laboratories develop The Complex Number Calculator

    (CNC) designed by George Stibitz. The machine had the capacity to add, subtract,

    multiply, and divide complex numbers.


  • 1940s Computers

    First Generation Computers (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes

    1943. The first Colossus is operational at Bletchley Park.


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  • 1945. ENIAC built at the University of Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1945.


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  • 1947. The Tran resister or transistor is invented .


  • 1949. The Manchester Mark 1 built at Manchester University.


  • 1949. EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator was constructed at

    Cambridge University.


  • 1950s Computers

    1951. The Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) was the first computer used for commercial

    business applications in the world.


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  • 1951. Magnetic tape was first used to record computer data on the Remington Rand

    UNIVAC I, the first US-produced commercial computer.

    1953. IBM shipped its first electronic computer, the 701. During three years of

    production, IBM sold 19 machines to research laboratories, aircraft companies, and

    the U.S. federal government. 21

  • 1954. The IBM 650 was the worlds first mass-produced computer, with the company selling 450 in one year. Spinning at 12,500 rpm, the 650s magnetic data-storage drum allowed much faster access to stored material than drum memory


    1954. The IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) was a one-of-a-

    kind first-generation (vacuum tube) electronic computer built by IBM for the United

    States Navy's Bureau of Ordnance. It was likely the most powerful computer at the


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  • 1956. The IBM 305 RAMAC is launched.


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  • Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) Transistors

    1958. The RCA 501 was the first computer designed as a high-end

    general purpose system using Transistors. It was sold in the UK by

    English Electric as the KDP10


  • 1959. The EMIDEC 1100 computer (first british transistorised computer) was

    produced by the Computing Services Division of EMI Laboratories in the UK. After

    merger with ICT, sold as ICT 1101.


  • 1959. The IBM 7000 series mainframes were IBMs first transistorised computers.


  • 1950s. British Computer Companies:

    British Tabulating Machine Company Limited (1909)

    Powers-Samas (1932)

    Elliot Computers (1950)

    Marconi Computers (1951)

    Ferranti Computers (1951)

    LEO Computers (1954)

    English Electric Computers (1955)

    EMI Computing services Division (1958)


  • 1960s Computers

    1960. A second generation computer, the IBM 1401, captured about one third of the

    world market.


  • 1960. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)

    PDP-1 minicomputer. The average PDP-1

    included a cathode ray tube graphic display,

    needed no air conditioning and required only

    one operator.

    1960. The Control Data Corporation CDC 160

    computer was the first truly small (mini)

    computer to hit the market.


  • 1961. The first LEO III was completed.

    LEO III/5 installed at CAV Acton in 196332

  • LEO III/5 installed at CAV Acton in 1963

    LEO III Circuit Board


  • 1962. National Cash Registers NCR-315 computer was the first computer to use

    NCRs Card Random Access Memory (CRAM).


  • 1963. Honeywell 200. A small business computer introduced to compete with

    IBM's 1401.

    1963. The invention of the mouse by

    Douglas Englebart.


  • 1964. IBM announced the System/360. Orders for the system

    climbed to 1,000 per month within two years.

    Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits


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  • 1965. DEC introduced the PDP-8,

    the first commercially successful



  • 1965. RCA Spectra series

    computers were the Radio

    Corporation of America's

    first transitorised computer.

    The RCA Spectra 70/45

    was sold in the UK by

    English Electric as the

    System 4-50.

    1966. Hewlett Packard entered the

    computer market with the HP 2100 / HP

    1000 series of minicomputers.


  • 1968. EELM merge with ICT to form International Computers Limited

    (ICL). ICL the last major British computer manufacturer.

    1960s Saw the demise of British Computer Companies

    1959. British Tabulating Machine Company merge with Powers-Samas

    to form International Computers and Tabulators (ICT).

    1962. EMI Computing Services Division merges with ICT.

    1963. Ferranti Computing merges with ICT.

    1963. LEO Computers and English Electric merge to form English Electric

    Leo (EELEO)

    1964. Marconi Computers merge with EELEO to form English Electric Leo

    Marconi (EELM)

    1967. Elliot Computers merge with ICT.


  • 1970s ComputersFourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) Microprocessors

    1971. IBM invented the 8-inch floppy

    diskette, which could hold 80 Kilobytes

    of data.

    1972. Hewlett-Packard announced the HP-

    35 as "a fast, extremely accurate electronic

    slide rule" with a solid-state memory

    similar to that of a computer. The first

    pocket calculator.


  • 1975. IBM 5100 Portable Computer.



  • 1975. Honeywell Level 6 Mini Computer.



  • 1975. MITS Altair 8800.



  • 1976. Steve Wozniak designed the Apple I.

    1977. Apple II computer released.


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  • 1977. The Commodore Personal Electronic Transactor (PET) was a home/personal

    computer produced by Commodore from 1977. It was a top seller in the Canadian,

    USA, and UK educational markets


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  • 1977. Tandy TRS-80. Tandy Corporation teamed up with Radio Shack to release

    the TRS-80, one of the first personal computers available. Tandy wasn't expecting

    many sales, but this, their first computer, sold 10,000 units in the first month



  • 1977. DECs first VAX model (A 32-bit complex instruction set computer) was

    the VAX-11/780, which was introduced on October 25, 1977

    1978. The 5 1/4-inch floppy disk became the standard medium for personal computer

    software after Apple Computer and Tandy Radio Shack introduced disk drives for this

    format. Capacities ranged from 110 Kilobytes to 1.2 Megabytes of data.


  • 1980s Computers

    1980. Science of Cambridge Ltd introduced the Sinclair ZX80 home computer.


  • 1980. IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates (Microsoft) to create an operating system

    for a new PC. The pair buy the rights to a simple operating system manufactured by

    Seattle Computer Products and use it as a template. IBM allows Microsoft to keep

    the marketing rights to the operating system, called DOS..


  • 1981. IBM introduced its PC (Personal

    Computer - IBM 5150.

    1981. Sinclair released the ZX81.


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  • 1981. The BBC Micro was first sold.


  • 1982. Commodore introduces the Commodore 64.

    1982. The first 3-inch diskette introduced.56

  • 1982. The ZX Spectrum release