The Evolution of World Politics Chapter 2 PS 130 World Politics Michael R. Baysdell
2 The Evolving World System: Early Development Important concepts come from ancient Greece and Rome territorial (city-)state/sovereignty/nationalism/democracy Two types of Democracyrepresentative and direct These government also create concept of citizenshipPaul the Apostle example Only male nonslave citizens were allowed to vote Fall of Rome and the emergence of universalistic authority-- both religious and secular authority Roman Catholic Church asserts itself (Holy Roman Empire, Kings crowned by Pope to display dominance) Secular authority fills the power vacuum: (Empires: Russian, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, etc) Feudal system--local authority in the Middle Ages
The Feudal System in Europe Organized around principalities, dukedoms, baronies, other fiefdoms Nobles ruled these organizations and exercised almost complete authority. In theory the nobles were subservient to a King, but at times the King was technically weaker than the noble! Declined because of military technology and economic expansion (except Russia, serfs until 1863)
4 Decline of Universalistic Authority: Causes Renaissance between 1350-1650 Belief in reason trumped God Protestant Reformation splits Catholic Church; Luthers 95 theses (1517)--25% of Western Europeans become Protestant Henry VIII rejects Papal authority after denied divorce, creates Church of England (Episcopalian Church) The Treaty of Westphalia (1648): Holy Roman Empire splintered into two rival Catholic monarchies (Spain, Austria-Hungary)
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Ended 30 Years War, 1618 to 1648 Decentralization of the Holy Roman Empireover 300 German princes became sovereign Emphasis on state sovereignty within anarchical political system Collapse of multinational empires Habsburg supremacy curtailed Rise of the Bourbon Dynasty in France Rise of the Swedish Empire Rise of the Dutch Republic Decline of papal authority
6 The 18th and 19th Centuries: Emerging Themes Surrounding the Sovereign State Popular sovereignty: Rise of democracy Westernization of the international system Lasting impact of the industrial revolution Domination of Eurowhite cultural beliefs & values Growth of the multipolar system and the preservation of the balance of power Shifting alliances and numerous major powers Goal: Stop any one power from becoming dominant Concert of Europe, 1815 UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria-Hungary, France (1818 after Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle)
7 The 20th Century: 1900 to World War II European multipolar balance-of-power system ends British concern about the possibility of French domination Rigid alliance system leads to World War I (Triple Entente/Triple Alliance) World War I drains European Powers Rise of Nationalismundermines multiethnic empires States gain independence, colonies begin breaking away Empires collapse--Democracy rapidly eroding the legitimacy of monarchs Rise of Communist USSR (1917) Increased roles for Japan and the United States Europeans give in to Hitlers demands (appeasement) at 1938 Munich conference Europe collapses as a global power center. The United States and Japan emerge as major world powers. Multipolar system quickly becomes a bipolar system with the end of WWII and the beginning of the cold war. USSR emerges as major world power with U.S. after WWII.
8 Bipolar System: 1945-1991 US and USSR eye each other as enemies even before WW II end East-West axis established; Cold War runs its course U.S. pursued Containment Doctrineglobalization of policy NATO v. Warsaw Pact Third world lobbied for support; nonalignment movement Confrontations do occur--Cuban missile crisis Proxy Wars (Nixon Doctrine)Middle East, Vietnam, Afghanistan Dtente: SALT I/II, Nixon Plays China Card Reagan largely credited for knockout blow: SDI Gorbachev undermines Soviet system with glasnost and perestroika The fall of the USSR ends bipolar system
9 The 21st Century: The Genesis of a New System One power pole-U.S. hegemony. Will this last? U.S. stronger military than any other hegemon in history But U.S. military power has 3 problems: Better at deterring than compelling, built to fight other militaries, and other states still possess power Multipolar urges--regional powers such as the European Union Imperial Overstretch/Decline? (Paul Kennedy) Limited unipolarity?--power of U.S. restrained by international organizations, international law, and interdependence Future polarity--highly contested U.S. must lead actively but not too aggressively Zakaria: U.S. problem isnt overstretch, its government paralysis But for now, lets soak up the unipolar moment
Charles Krauthammer: The Unipolar Moment (1990) (2002) (2006) Thinking about post-Cold War US foreign policy has been led astray by three conventionally-accepted but mistaken assumptions about the character of the post-Cold War environment. (1) that the world is now multipolar, whereas it is in fact unipolar, with the USA the sole superpower, at least for present policy purposes (2) that the US domestic consensus favors internationalism rather than isolationismKrauthammer admits he was wrong here (3) that in consequence of the Soviet collapse, the threat of war has substantially diminished. Dangers may be smaller, but more widespread. Krauthammer thought this unipolarity would last 30 years or so. Revisited in 2002 and 2006 Apogee Halfway through the 30 years, still no alliances against U.S. Some trouble being made by Iran, assisted by Russia/China Economic concerns, debt, EU emerging, China But no clear end in sight. Fewer state-on-state conflicts. Why?
Francis Fukuyama The End of History and the Last Man (1992) "What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. But not so fast.
After the Cold War, what are we going to fight about? Democracies generally have same western values, rarely fight each other People's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. Clash of Civilizations Samuel Huntington (1991)
Fragmentation and Globalization compete McDonalds and MNCs now have global operationsproduce and sell products around the world. World smaller than everinterconnected by internet, telecommunications Tribal enclaves lure members These two forces collide to produce catastrophe and anomie Benjamin Barber: Jihad v. McWorld (1992)
14 Challenges to Authority of States External challenges-- McWorld Political integration: Increase in number and importance of international actors Economic interdependence Social integration Weakening Western Orientation Internal challenges Jihad Ethnic rivalries and tribalism: State disintegration i.e., former Yugoslavia, East Timor, Turkey, and Rwanda Increased number of refugees Movement toward autonomy (i.e., Kosovo)
Countries That Have Splintered/Threatened to Splinter Former USSR Yugoslavia/Slovenia-Croatia-Bosnia-Kosovo East Timor (from Indonesia) Eritrea/Ethiopia Rwanda Spain (Basque provinces, Catalonia) Iraq Canada (Quebec referendum of 1995) Even the U.S. not totally immune (Texas)
16 Weakening Western Orientation Colonial possessions become states. Increase in number of non-Western independent states: Strong presence in UN Joining together to promote their causes (Group of 77) Different value systems Less developed countries ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACIES
Most democracies before 1960 were liberal democraciestwo characteristics Protect civil liberties Allow for free elections Recent development: only 1 of 2 present Examples: Haiti Singapore Hong Kong Fareed Zakaria: Illiberal Democracy (1997)
18 Security in the 21st Century: National security traditionally based on self- reliance High costs involved in providing national security: Economic and human costs of war Advent of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) changes the nature of such costs Asymmetrical warfare--new responses toward unconventional political violence needed. Alternatives to self-reliance: Arms control International security and peacekeeping forces
19 Economic Interdependence: Transnational flow of trade, investment capital, and currencies have economically entwined all countries. Creation and strengthening of global and regional economic organizations (i.e., the World Bank, IMF, WTO, and EU) Emphasis on free trade, particularly within regional alliances (NAFTA, EU, ASEAN, and Mercosur) Trade and monetary tensions particularly when state sovereignty is at stake Problem areas: surrendering sovereignty, lack of corporate regulation/differing regulations between states, protecting worker rights
20 Economic Disparity: The Growing Gap between North and South GNP disparity between Economically Developed Countries (EDCs) and Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Most EDCs in North. Less developed countries demand new international economic order--one with an equal distribution of wealth EDCs must re
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