The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Section 13.66
Was Germany really united after 1871?
The Habsburg Empire after 1848 Bismarck left 1/6 th of Germans left outside the empire Had to work out their future with a dozen other nationalities around the Danube Amazing resilience is shown by the Habsburg presence Attacked by Revolutionary France (1789-1799) Attacked by Napoleon (1799- 1809) Broken up in 1848 and restored by Russian intervention Attacked by Napoleon III in 1859 Attacked by Bismarck in 1866 Yet it held together until 1918 Its character greatly changed during the 1850s-60s
The Habsburgs v Nationalism How would the Habs react to problems of nationalism? Francis Joseph 1848 to 1916 Deeply seated in his own anachronism Lived in a pompous dream world Disliked everything liberal, progressive, modern Incapable of ambitious projects, bold decisions, persevering actions Yet post 1848 government was not idle Tried Germanic centralization (language) Bureaucratic efficiency and modernization Maintained the abolition of serfdom (from 1848) Built RR Germanic centralization was distasteful to the non-German nationalities Especially to the Magyars Magyars made up less than half the mixed Hungarian population
The Compromise of 1867 Ausgleich (a tie) A compromise between the Germans and the Magyars Was to the disadvantage of the slavs (considered backwards) Dual Monarchy was created West of the Leith was Austria: German Language East of the Leith was Hungary: Magyar Equal to each other Each had own constitution, parliament Austrian administrative language = German Hungarian = Magyar Neither state could interfere in the others internal affairs State joined by Habsburgs who would be Emperor over Austria and King of Hungary Delegates from each parliament would meet regularly alternately in each others capitals Was also a common ministry of war, finance, foreign affairs
National and Social Questions A semblance of two nation states was created Germans were less than half the people in Austria Included Slovenes, Czechs, Poles, Ruthenians Magyars were less than half the people in Hungary Included Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Transylvanians (Romanians) Neither nation-state was democratic Austria did not adopt universal male suffrage until 1907 Hungary enfranchised only 25% of adult males in 1914 Owners of the great landed estates remained the dominant class Landless peasants had no educated or wealthy class to advocated for their nationalities (Slovak, Serbs) Landlordism became major social issue Aristocracy (educated, civilized) v. depressed peasant masses who had been left out of modernity German24% Hungarian20% Czech13% Polish10% Ruthenian8% Romanian6% Croat5% Slovak4% Serb4% Slovene3% Italian3%
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