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The Articles of Confederation Our country’s first plan for a national government Ms. Sappington

Dec 28, 2015

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The Articles of Confederation

The Articles of ConfederationOur countrysfirst plan for a national governmentMs. Sappington

Chapter 10 Lesson 1 Vocabularyconstitution noun, a written plan for governmentArticles of Confederation noun, the countrys first plan for a national governmentterritory noun, land ruled by a national government but which has no representatives in the governmentordinance noun, a lawThe Articles of ConfederationThe 13 colonies had fought for self-government. Each new state had a constitution to protect its citizens. Americans did not want to give up their power to a strong, central government. The Continental Congress created the Articles of Confederation, which was the countrys first plan for a national government. The states had more power than the national government. Congress could declare war, borrow and print money, and make treaties with other nations. It could not start an army, create taxes, or control trade.People wanted to settle on land won in the Revolutionary War. Congress passed two ordinances to control what happened in the Northwest Territories. The Land Ordinance of 1785 explained how the land would be measured, divided, and sold. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 explained the government of the Northwest Territory. It also outlawed slavery in the territory.Problems for the NationCongress owed money to banks and to other countries for the Revolutionary War. Congress could not raise money because it could not collect taxes. The states were not working together. They printed their own money. People could not agree on how much the money was worth. In Massachusetts, many farmers did not earn enough money to pay their debts and high state taxes. If farmers did not pay, the state took their farms. In 1786, Daniel Shays led a rebellion of armed farmers. They protested to stop the state government from taking farms. The state militia stopped them. Shayss Rebellion showed that a weak national government could not keep order. George Washington worried the government was not strong enough to protect peoples rights. In February 1787, Congress invited state delegates to meet and change the Articles of Confederation to make the nation stronger.

Shays RebellionChapter 10 Lesson 2 Vocabularyfederal adjective, a system of government in which the states share power with the central governmentrepublic noun, a government in which the citizens elect leaders to represent themcompromise noun, both sides give up something to settle a disagreementratify verb, to acceptBill of Rights noun, a list of rights of individuals, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religionLeaders of the ConventionThe Constitutional Convention met in 1787. Delegates met to give Congress more power. Delegates included only white, male landowners. Some delegates wanted a republic. They thought a republic would protect citizens rights. Others wanted a federal system. In a federal system, the central government could share power with the states, but the central government would have more power.

Constitutional ConventionCreating a New GovernmentJames Madison suggested that the government should have three branches. One branch, the Congress, would make laws. A second branch would carry out laws. A third branch would settle legal arguments. States compromised in order to support the Constitution. Madison wanted the number of delegates from each state to be based on the states population. Delegates from smaller states thought this wouldgive bigger states more power. Roger Sherman suggested dividing Congress into two parts. Each state would have the same number of representatives in one house, the Senate. In the other house, the House of Representatives, the number of representatives would depend on the states population. Southern delegates wanted to count enslaved people in their populations. Northern delegates believed they should not be counted. The states compromised. Every five enslaved persons were counted as three free people. Some states wanted to end slavery. Southern states would not accept this. The states agreed to end the slave trade by 1808.

Legislative BranchThe legislative branch of government is made up of the Congress and government agencies, such as the Government Printing Office and Library of Congress, that provide assistance to and support services for the Congress. Article I of theConstitution established this branch and gave Congress the power to make laws. Congress has two parts, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

SENATEExecutive BranchThe executive branch of Government makes sure that the laws of the United States are obeyed. The President of the United States is the head of the executive branch of government. This branch is very large so the President gets help from the Vice President, department heads (Cabinet members), and heads of independent agencies. President: Leader of the country and commands the military. Vice President: President of the Senate and becomes President if the President can no longer do the job. Departments: Department heads advise the President on issues and help carry out policies. Independent Agencies: Help carry out policy or provide special services.

Judicial BranchThe judicial branch of government is made up of the court system. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land. Article III of the Constitution established this Court and all other Federal courts were created by Congress. Courts decide arguments about the meaning of laws, how they are applied, and whether they break the rules of the Constitution.

Ratifying the ConstitutionFederalists supported the Constitution. Anti-federalistswanted a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution. TheBill of Rights would protect the rights of individuals.Federalists agreed. Nine of thirteen states were needed toratify the Constitution for it to become law. In June 1788,nine states agreed to ratify the Constitution. The countryhad a new government.Chapter 10 Lesson 3Preamble noun, the introduction to the Constitutiondemocracy noun, a government in which the people have the power to make political decisionslegislative branch noun, the part of the government that makes laws for the countryexecutive branch noun, the part of the government that carries out laws made by Congressjudicial branch noun, the part of the government that resolves conflicts about the meaning of laws and whether laws have been followedA Plan for GovernmentIn the Preamble of the Constitution, the writers listed the purposes of the Constitution. The Constitution tells us that our government is a democracy. It divides the government into three branches. The legislative branch, or Congress, makes laws and raises money. Congress also collects taxes to pay for services. The executive branch suggests and carries out the laws. The President is the head of this branch. A new President is elected every four years. The judicial branch is made up of courts. They decide what laws mean and whether they have been followed.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.Limits on GovernmentThe Constitution includes checks and balances. They keepone branch from becoming stronger than the others. ThePresident makes treaties and chooses judges. Congress canreject these treaties or judges. Congress makes laws. ThePresident can veto these laws. The courts can decide if a lawfollows the Constitution. A law that is found unconstitutionalis no longer in effect.The Constitution creates a federal system. The nationalgovernment has power over national issues. This includesdefense, printing money, the postal service, and trade. Stategovernments have power over local issues. States controleducation and elections. Both systems share power as well,such as collecting taxes. Federal laws are stronger than statelaws. The highest law is the Constitution itself.

Changing the ConstitutionAn amendment is a change to the Constitution. The first ten amendments are the Bill of Rights. They protect rights, such as freedom of speech. The tenth amendment limits the power of the federal government. Many Americans wanted a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution so that the Constitution could be changed as the country changed. In 1790, the Constitution did not protect the rights of all Americans. People have fought for their rights and won. Today the Constitution gives equal protection to more citizens.

Bill of Rights

**Amendment ICongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment IIA well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment IIINo soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IVThe right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

**Amendment VNo person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual