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    Ahmad Zaki Mubarak


    This paper deals with the all metafunctions which contained in

    expert’s procedure exposition text. One expert’s texts of procedure

    were analyzed to find out the types of metafunction which is

    contained in the text. This paper employed Systemic Functional

    Grammar (SFG) based on Halliday and Matthiessen’s (2004)

    framework since it can seek and identify the metafunctions of

    language structured which makes kinds of meaning. The findings

    showed that all of clauses which contained the types of

    metafunctions indicated author’s interpersonal meaning with

    different value of language in the texts. The different types of

    language value also indicated the author’s interpersonal meaning

    in the texts. In addition, this analysis concluded that expert’s texts

    used a type of certainty in modality type, declarative as the type of

    mood, relational process as the type of ideational, and topical

    themes as the type of textual which is dominated the texts. In

    addition, the metafunctions in the texts is indicated the language

    reveals interpersonal meaning suggested by author.

    Key words: Interpersonal, Ideational, Experiential, Metafunction,

    Systemic Functional Grammar, Procedure Text.

    A. Introduction

    The procedure text is one of the texts that should be taught to the junior high

    school students. It is important because it deals with how to get things done. The

    reason for choosing this text are the less explanation from the teacher in the

  • classroom, the difficulty in writing this text, the preference in using google translate,

    the unappropriate textbook. With these reason, it needs to analyse the procedure text.

    1. The kinds of texts students are required to learn how to read and write don’t build

    on one another.

    2. Issue of teachers not knowing or being prepared to teach how language works in

    the genres they typically ask students to read and write.

    3. Issue of text books and other resources that don’t help much or make the matter


    4. Say something about why I am focusing on summaries as a genre

    5. Starting in upper elementary school, students are routinely asked to summarize

    what they have read in all disciplines (e.g., short stories, novels in Language

    Arts; books, chapters, or articles in Science and Social Studies).

    6. Need to review curriculum frameworks and English competence standards for

    more info on why this is an important genre to focus on to support this claimIn

    written language, a text is something that we can see or read from books,

    newspaper or any other piece of writing. Derewianika (2011, p. 11) states that a

    text is made up of a number of sentences, sentences can consist of a single clause

    or a number of clauses joined together and clause is a unit of meaning that

    expresses a message. Moreover, Meyer (2009, p. 80) states that text is a structure

    larger than a sentence.

    In Halliday’s SFL, (Hartyan, 2011, p. 1) states that language as a social

    phenomenon is functional it means that it was concerned with the mechanism of text

    structure, function and meaning of language. In text, linguists and language analysts

    it has a relationship in academic texts which is identified grammatical structures and

    devices in framing of idea. Lin & Peng (2006, para.1) state that language is a large

    number of grammatical units, called constructions, which are the basic forms for the

    speakers to express their meanings. Connected between discourse and text, Meyer

    (2009, p. 80) writes that for discourse analysts, a texts is both a linguistic and

    sociocultural construct. Furthermore, Hasan (1985, p. 52) as cited in Meyer (2009,

    p. 81) write that text is a functional unit because it represents “language is a doing

    something in some context, as opposed to isolated words or sentences.” To capture

  • the functional nature of texts, they propose that texts have two main characteristics:

    unity of structure and unity of texture.

    Henceforth, as function of language, spoken and written language have quite

    different forms, for example; in language text, it usually tends to be more highly in

    language structured, more explicit and less interactive. Because it traps our organize

    and consolidate our thinking to reflect our understandings and it must be sustained

    reflection to make new connections for all words as unit of text itself, Hyland (2003,

    p. 3) states that writing is an intricate structure that can only be learned by developing

    the ability to manipulate lexis and grammar. It means writing in English language

    regarded an extension of grammar and vocabulary, reinforcing language patterns

    through habit formation and measure the ability to produce good formed sentences.

    And in spoken language, it usually needs the process and programing of thinking to

    make our language can be understood well by the audience.

    In addition, the writer used systemic functional grammar perspective, because

    this study primarily studies about how language explores both how people use

    language and how language is structured for use as semiotic system (Eggins, 2004,

    p. 21). That’s the why the writer conducted this paper entitled “An Analysis of

    Metafunctions in Expert’s Hortatory Exposition Texts (Systemic Functional

    Grammar Perspectives)” because the writer interested in analyzing the level of

    language and meaning of language in the texts. This study is analyzed the texts

    written by the expert’s. Henceforth, systemic functional grammar perspective

    facilitates the writer in analyze expert’s hortatory exposition text.

    B. Literature Review

    1. Metafunction

    There are exactly three general functions of language in social contexts to

    enact our relationships, to represent our experience, and to organize discourse as

    meaningful text (Martin & Rose, 2007, p. 47). Those three general functions are

    called metafunctions of language. They are included ideational, interpersonal, and

    textual metafunction. The metafunction of language represents the purpose of

    language. People use language in order to make meaning. The linguistic texts make

  • a number of meanings simultaneously (Eggins, 2004, p. 11). According to Halliday

    and Matthiessen (2004, p. 29) language provides a theory of human experience. It

    can be represented by the lexicogrammar of every language. This is what is called

    ideational metafunction. It is distinguished into two components. They are

    experiential and logical meanings.

    Regarding the definition of those meanings, Teich (1999, p. 15) states:

    The experiential refers to prepositional content encoded as processes,

    events, the participants therein and the accompanying circumstances, the

    types of objects referred to and their qualities. The logical refers to some

    general organizing relations expressed, for instance, by dependencies

    between elements in structure.

    In other words, experiential relates to the perceptions or ideas about the world,

    yet the logical represents the relationships between the perceptions or ideas (Bloor

    & Bloor, 2004, p. 10). Besides the ideational metafunction, there is also

    interpersonal metafunction. This metafunction uses language as the way to enact the

    role within the social relations to show how defensible we find our propositions, to

    encode ideas about obligation and inclination and to express our attitudes (Butt et

    al., 2001, p. 5).

    Furthermore, Language is used to relate what is said (or written) to the rest of

    the text and to other linguistic events (Bloor & Bloor, 2004, p. 11). Language enables

    the people to organize the ideational and interpersonal meanings by establishing the

    coherence and cohesion within the text (Teich, 1999, p. 15; Butt et al., 2001, p. 6).

    There is a correlation among the metafunctions in the language systems

    (functional grammar), and the contextual categories or language registers (Field,

    Tenor & Mode) since the metafunctions organize the communicative planes of both

    language and social context (Halliday & Martin, 1993, p. 29). Martin & White (2005,

    p. 27) claim that Register is a more abstract level of analysis than discourses

    semantics, since it is concerned with patterns of discourse pattern. Furthermore,

    register can also be connected by SFL to the language metafunctions for they adhere

    to the same functional principle of organization (Teich, 1999, p. 16). Gerot &

    Wignell (1994, p. 12-14) highlight that ideational meanings are extremely

    influenced by the Field of discourse. Then, interpersonal meanings are most affected

    by Tenor of discourse and textual meanings are most influenced by Mode of

  • discourse. They further say that to fully understand the text, we can reconstruct the

    context of situation since there is a systematic relationship between text and context

    (Gerot & Wignell, 1994, p. 12).

    The metafunctions or meanings then are represented through the SFL. For

    instance, ideational meanings are represented through transitivity system.

    Interpersonal meanings are represented through mood and modality. Then, textual

    meanings are represented through what is called theme and cohesion (Gerot &

    Wignell, 1994, p. 12; Teich, 1999, p. 15).

    1.1.Types of Metafunction

    In systemic functional grammar there has metafunctions. Halliday (1999) as

    cited in Halliday & Matthiessen (2004, p. 29) write that language has three

    metafunctions, namely, interpersonal, textual and experiential metafunctions.

    Besides, Teich (1999, p. 15) states that all three metafunctions are of equal status;

    none is more important than any other. They are simultaneously relevant at any

    stratum of the linguistic system.

    a. Interpersonal Metafunction

    The clause of the grammar is not only a figure of text, it representing some

    process, some doing or happening, writing or sensing. It’s also a proposition, or a

    proposal, whereby we inform or question, give an order or make an offer, and

    express our appraisal of and attitude towards whoever we are addressing and what

    we are talking about. This kind of meaning is more active: if the ideational function

    of the grammar is ‘language as reflection’, this is ‘language as action’. Halliday &

    Matthiessen (2004, p. 30) assume that interpersonal metafunction, is to suggest that

    it is both interactive and personal. Interpersonal meatafunction as another mode in

    describe of meaning which is related to the construction of text. In other sense,

    interpersonal metafunction regarded as an enabling or facilitating function, since

    construing experience and enacting interpersonal relations.

    Moreover, Hartyan (2011, p. 262) states interpersonal metafunction in the

    text is degree of intimacy or distance and the type of the relationship between the

    writer and reader or participants in a text through the type of modality. Interpersonal

    metafunction has two important components: mood and modality. Eggins (2004, p.

  • 147) writes that Mood structure consists of mood element and residue and Modality

    is a complex area of an English grammar which investigates how to convey the

    message of the text, and residue is the element left over of the function the clause. It

    can be concluded that mood of a clause can be identified from its grammatical

    structure statement is realized by declarative mood, question is realized by

    interrogative mood, command is realized by imperative mood.

    b. Textual Metafunction

    Halliday (1985) as cited in (Arinsurot, 2013, p. 161) state in the textual

    function of the clause is that of constructing a message’ and the theme/rheme

    structure is the ‘basic form of the organization of the clause as message.

    Furthermore, Halliday and Matthiessen (2004, p.79) assert the textual metafunction

    helps organise the message within and between clauses, and is closely linked to

    theories of cohesion.

    Moreover, Eggins (2004, p. 320) writes that textual metafunction is in a sense

    parasitic upon both the ideational and the interpersonal strands of meanings. Besides,

    Halliday and Matthiesen (2004, p. 288) combines ideational (experiential) and

    interpersonal metafunction in commonsense relationship to guarantee semantic

    integrity in textual metafunction. Generally, there are three components of textual

    metafunction as follows: The system of theme (thematic structure), the system of

    information (information structure), and the system of cohesion.

    c. Experiential Metafunction

    Teich (1999, p. 15) states that “The experiential refers to prepositional

    content encoded as processes, events, the participants therein and the accompanying

    circumstances, the types of objects referred to and their qualities. The logical refers

    to some general organizing relations expressed, for instance, by dependencies

    between elements in structure (e.g. hypotactic versus paratactic organization)”.

    Moreover, Bloor and Bloor (2004, p. 10) state that experiential relates to the

    perceptions or ideas about the world, yet the logical represents the relationships

    between the perceptions or ideas.

  • Also called Clause as Representation, the clause represents the ‘content’ of

    our experiences, answering the question ‘Who does what to whom’. This

    metafunction uses the grammatical system of transitivity. Although sharing the

    traditional view of transitivity that the focus is on the verb group (process),

    Thompson (2004, p.7) states that SFG refers to the system as describing the whole

    of clause. It can be concluded that through systemic functional grammar, it

    describing the ideology and power of language.

    2. Procedure Text

    Procedure text is a kind of text that telling people to do or to make something

    through some stages need to be accomplished. To build a procedure text,

    Derewianka (1990) lists the organization of the procedure text as follows:

    a. Goal (what to achieve, mostly written as the tittle of the text)

    b. Materials (things needed to achieve the goal that will be used from the

    beginning until the end of the text)

    c. Methods (series of steps the readers or listeners need to do to achieve the goal)

    Derewianka (1990) also mentions that a good procedure text, there should be

    covered some linguistic features.

    a. Connectors marking the time or sequence like first, second, then, after that,

    finally and many others

    b. Action verbs to draw a vivid description for readers or listeners so they do

    exactly like what is supposed to be done

    c. Using imperative sentences

    d. Involves the information of how, when and where in the steps or methods to

    give detail description to do the steps

    C. Data Analysis

    In the process of analysing interpersonal meaning, the writer analysed the texts

    by existence of mood and modality types, mood types were divided into three

    categories; declarative mood, question is realized by interrogative mood, command

    is realized by imperative mood. And modality were categorized as value of modality,

  • and polarity system which is contained in the sentence. The values were categorized

    in high, medium, and low. Then the polarity of the text will be positive and negative.

    It means the value of modality type and polarity analysis can be described the author

    meaning and how strong the statements or statements the author in the text.

    This written assignment is an analysis of genre. The type of text analyzed is

    procedure text which covers the topic about one method for improving basketball

    shooting skills. The text is considered the best because it coherently and accurately

    presents the information in relation to the topic proposed. The essay is well

    organized and occasional language errors that are presented do not result in

    inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connection. Moreover, this topic

    which is about one method for improving basketball shooting skills is chosen

    because it is considered appropriate to be taught to junior high school students. It

    represents the skills that should be acquired by the basketball player to do the better


    This assignment will analyze the organization of the text; how each stage is

    arranged together to achieve the purpose of the text and also reaches the social

    function of this analytical exposition text. Besides, the register (field, tenor, and

    mode) of the text will also be analyzed. It will be seen from the language features

    the writer puts forward in the text. The analysis will be put in comment section.

    Reference : scpergell

    A. Literature Review : derewianka

    Genre/register : aspek to be consider in Eggins.

    The content of situation USING SFL :

    Procedure text : goal, materials, methods

    B. Methodology : qualitative descriptive text

    Data Collection

    Data Analysis

    C. Findings and discussion

    The result from genre analysis of expert text displays below on the table.

    However, agood procedural text should comprise the goal, material (and

    tools), steps. ...

    The example of procedure text THE ANALYSIS OF GENREOF THE


    Text organization

  • Goal The text tells the goal..


    The materials arementioned as can be

    seenon the left column. It is stated that

    it needs : a basketball, hoop,..


    This expert text involves these things

    below as its language features : the text

    mostly presents sentences in

    imperatives form without the explicit

    subject mention. The subject refers to

    the reader.

    Analysis the Context of Situation

    a. Investigating field

    b. Investigating tenor

    c. Investigating mode

    The analysis of context of situation through interpersonal, experiental, and textual


    The example:

    The organization of a procedure text

    The parts of the procedure : the goal, equipment, steps.

    Language features of a procedure text : connectors, action verbs, using imperatives


    Example analysis

    The Interpersonal, Experiential, And Textual Metafunction Analysis Of The


  • The following is one method for improving basketball shooting skills.




    One method for improving




    Subject Finite Predicator Complement Adjunct

    Mood Residue

    Token Process:




    Experiential Rheme


    You will need a basketball, hoop, with backboard and chalk.

    You Will Need a basketball,

    hoop, with

    backboard and


    Subject Finite Predicator Complement

    Mood Residue

    Senser Process: mental, desideration Phenomenon

    Experiential Rheme


  • 1. Measure three metres from the pole and draw a line with the chalk.

    Measure Three metres From the


    And Draw A line With the




    Complement Adjunct Conjuncti

    ve Adjunct

    Predicator Complemen






    Goal Circumstan




    goal Circumst




    Rheme Interperso



    Theme Theme

    2. Stand at this line.

    Stand at this line

    Predicator Adjunct


    Process: material Circumstance

    Interpersonal Rheme


  • 3. Place the left hand under the basketball and put the right hand on top.

    Place the left


    under the


    And Put the right


    On top





    Adjunct Conjuncti



    Predicator Comple






    Goal circumstan




    goal Circumstan


    Interpersonal Rheme Interpersonal Rheme

    Theme Theme

    4. Roll the ball between the hands so that it balances on the fingers of the right


    Roll the balll Between

    the hands



    it balances on the fingers

    of the right


    Predicator Complement Adjunct subject Finite Predicator Adjunct

    Residue Mood Residue



    Goal Circumst


    Actor Process:



    Interpersonal Rheme Experiential Rheme

    Theme Theme

  • 5. Look at the centre of the square on the backboard.

    Look at the center of the square on the backboard

    Predicator Complement Circumstantial Adjunct




    Goal Circumstance

    Interpersonal Rheme


    6. Flick the basketball off the fingers in the direction of the centre of the


    Flick the basketballl Off the fingers in the direction of the centre of the


    Predicator Complement Adjunct




    Goal Circumstance

    interpersonal Rheme


  • 7. Repeat the process until the ball goes into the basket ten out of ten times

    Repeat the process until the ball goes into the


    ten out

    of ten


    Predicator Complement Adjunct subject Finite predicator Adjunct

    Residue Mood Residue



    Goal Circumstance Actor Process: Material Circumst


    interpersonal Rheme Experiential Rheme

    Theme Theme

    The analysis of interpersonal meaning, scprl p.194



    Field of discourse Commentary



    Tenor of discourse Commentary

    Mood selections

    Measure, draw,

    stand,place, roll,

    flick, repeat

    Person selections

    2nd=You =

    student/ reader



    Agentive or societal


    -Students and


    -players and




    Social distance


    The only speaker is

    the teacher/


    Almost all the

    clauses in this text

    are in imperative –

    the speaker

    demands action and

    the other

    participants ...

    Textual meanings Mode of discourse Commentary

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