THE ANALYSIS OF GENRE, INTERPERSONAL,
EXPERIENTIAL AND TEXTUAL METAFUNCTIONS OF
A PROCEDURE EXPERT TEXT
AHMAD ZAKI MUBARAK
THE ANALYSIS OF GENRE, INTERPERSONAL, EXPERIENTIAL AND
TEXTUAL METAFUNCTIONS OF AN EXPERT TEXT
Ahmad Zaki Mubarak
This paper deals with the all metafunctions which contained in
expert’s procedure exposition text. One expert’s texts of procedure
were analyzed to find out the types of metafunction which is
contained in the text. This paper employed Systemic Functional
Grammar (SFG) based on Halliday and Matthiessen’s (2004)
framework since it can seek and identify the metafunctions of
language structured which makes kinds of meaning. The findings
showed that all of clauses which contained the types of
metafunctions indicated author’s interpersonal meaning with
different value of language in the texts. The different types of
language value also indicated the author’s interpersonal meaning
in the texts. In addition, this analysis concluded that expert’s texts
used a type of certainty in modality type, declarative as the type of
mood, relational process as the type of ideational, and topical
themes as the type of textual which is dominated the texts. In
addition, the metafunctions in the texts is indicated the language
reveals interpersonal meaning suggested by author.
Key words: Interpersonal, Ideational, Experiential, Metafunction,
Systemic Functional Grammar, Procedure Text.
The procedure text is one of the texts that should be taught to the junior high
school students. It is important because it deals with how to get things done. The
reason for choosing this text are the less explanation from the teacher in the
classroom, the difficulty in writing this text, the preference in using google translate,
the unappropriate textbook. With these reason, it needs to analyse the procedure text.
1. The kinds of texts students are required to learn how to read and write don’t build
on one another.
2. Issue of teachers not knowing or being prepared to teach how language works in
the genres they typically ask students to read and write.
3. Issue of text books and other resources that don’t help much or make the matter
4. Say something about why I am focusing on summaries as a genre
5. Starting in upper elementary school, students are routinely asked to summarize
what they have read in all disciplines (e.g., short stories, novels in Language
Arts; books, chapters, or articles in Science and Social Studies).
6. Need to review curriculum frameworks and English competence standards for
more info on why this is an important genre to focus on to support this claimIn
written language, a text is something that we can see or read from books,
newspaper or any other piece of writing. Derewianika (2011, p. 11) states that a
text is made up of a number of sentences, sentences can consist of a single clause
or a number of clauses joined together and clause is a unit of meaning that
expresses a message. Moreover, Meyer (2009, p. 80) states that text is a structure
larger than a sentence.
In Halliday’s SFL, (Hartyan, 2011, p. 1) states that language as a social
phenomenon is functional it means that it was concerned with the mechanism of text
structure, function and meaning of language. In text, linguists and language analysts
it has a relationship in academic texts which is identified grammatical structures and
devices in framing of idea. Lin & Peng (2006, para.1) state that language is a large
number of grammatical units, called constructions, which are the basic forms for the
speakers to express their meanings. Connected between discourse and text, Meyer
(2009, p. 80) writes that for discourse analysts, a texts is both a linguistic and
sociocultural construct. Furthermore, Hasan (1985, p. 52) as cited in Meyer (2009,
p. 81) write that text is a functional unit because it represents “language is a doing
something in some context, as opposed to isolated words or sentences.” To capture
the functional nature of texts, they propose that texts have two main characteristics:
unity of structure and unity of texture.
Henceforth, as function of language, spoken and written language have quite
different forms, for example; in language text, it usually tends to be more highly in
language structured, more explicit and less interactive. Because it traps our organize
and consolidate our thinking to reflect our understandings and it must be sustained
reflection to make new connections for all words as unit of text itself, Hyland (2003,
p. 3) states that writing is an intricate structure that can only be learned by developing
the ability to manipulate lexis and grammar. It means writing in English language
regarded an extension of grammar and vocabulary, reinforcing language patterns
through habit formation and measure the ability to produce good formed sentences.
And in spoken language, it usually needs the process and programing of thinking to
make our language can be understood well by the audience.
In addition, the writer used systemic functional grammar perspective, because
this study primarily studies about how language explores both how people use
language and how language is structured for use as semiotic system (Eggins, 2004,
p. 21). That’s the why the writer conducted this paper entitled “An Analysis of
Metafunctions in Expert’s Hortatory Exposition Texts (Systemic Functional
Grammar Perspectives)” because the writer interested in analyzing the level of
language and meaning of language in the texts. This study is analyzed the texts
written by the expert’s. Henceforth, systemic functional grammar perspective
facilitates the writer in analyze expert’s hortatory exposition text.
B. Literature Review
There are exactly three general functions of language in social contexts to
enact our relationships, to represent our experience, and to organize discourse as
meaningful text (Martin & Rose, 2007, p. 47). Those three general functions are
called metafunctions of language. They are included ideational, interpersonal, and
textual metafunction. The metafunction of language represents the purpose of
language. People use language in order to make meaning. The linguistic texts make
a number of meanings simultaneously (Eggins, 2004, p. 11). According to Halliday
and Matthiessen (2004, p. 29) language provides a theory of human experience. It
can be represented by the lexicogrammar of every language. This is what is called
ideational metafunction. It is distinguished into two components. They are
experiential and logical meanings.
Regarding the definition of those meanings, Teich (1999, p. 15) states:
The experiential refers to prepositional content encoded as processes,
events, the participants therein and the accompanying circumstances, the
types of objects referred to and their qualities. The logical refers to some
general organizing relations expressed, for instance, by dependencies
between elements in structure.
In other words, experiential relates to the perceptions or ideas about the world,
yet the logical represents the relationships between the perceptions or ideas (Bloor
& Bloor, 2004, p. 10). Besides the ideational metafunction, there is also
interpersonal metafunction. This metafunction uses language as the way to enact the
role within the social relations to show how defensible we find our propositions, to
encode ideas about obligation and inclination and to express our attitudes (Butt et
al., 2001, p. 5).
Furthermore, Language is used to relate what is said (or written) to the rest of
the text and to other linguistic events (Bloor & Bloor, 2004, p. 11). Language enables
the people to organize the ideational and interpersonal meanings by establishing the
coherence and cohesion within the text (Teich, 1999, p. 15; Butt et al., 2001, p. 6).
There is a correlation among the metafunctions in the language systems
(functional grammar), and the contextual categories or language registers (Field,
Tenor & Mode) since the metafunctions organize the communicative planes of both
language and social context (Halliday & Martin, 1993, p. 29). Martin & White (2005,
p. 27) claim that Register is a more abstract level of analysis than discourses
semantics, since it is concerned with patterns of discourse pattern. Furthermore,
register can also be connected by SFL to the language metafunctions for they adhere
to the same functional principle of organization (Teich, 1999, p. 16). Gerot &
Wignell (1994, p. 12-14) highlight that ideational meanings are extremely
influenced by the Field of discourse. Then, interpersonal meanings are most affected
by Tenor of discourse and textual meanings are most influenced by Mode of
discourse. They further say that to fully understand the text, we can reconstruct the
context of situation since there is a systematic relationship between text and context
(Gerot & Wignell, 1994, p. 12).
The metafunctions or meanings then are represented through the SFL. For
instance, ideational meanings are represented through transitivity system.
Interpersonal meanings are represented through mood and modality. Then, textual
meanings are represented through what is called theme and cohesion (Gerot &
Wignell, 1994, p. 12; Teich, 1999, p. 15).
1.1.Types of Metafunction
In systemic functional grammar there has metafunctions. Halliday (1999) as
cited in Halliday & Matthiessen (2004, p. 29) write that language has three
metafunctions, namely, interpersonal, textual and experiential metafunctions.
Besides, Teich (1999, p. 15) states that all three metafunctions are of equal status;
none is more important than any other. They are simultaneously relevant at any
stratum of the linguistic system.
a. Interpersonal Metafunction
The clause of the grammar is not only a figure of text, it representing some
process, some doing or happening, writing or sensing. It’s also a proposition, or a
proposal, whereby we inform or question, give an order or make an offer, and
express our appraisal of and attitude towards whoever we are addressing and what
we are talking about. This kind of meaning is more active: if the ideational function
of the grammar is ‘language as reflection’, this is ‘language as action’. Halliday &
Matthiessen (2004, p. 30) assume that interpersonal metafunction, is to suggest that
it is both interactive and personal. Interpersonal meatafunction as another mode in
describe of meaning which is related to the construction of text. In other sense,
interpersonal metafunction regarded as an enabling or facilitating function, since
construing experience and enacting interpersonal relations.
Moreover, Hartyan (2011, p. 262) states interpersonal metafunction in the
text is degree of intimacy or distance and the type of the relationship between the
writer and reader or participants in a text through the type of modality. Interpersonal
metafunction has two important components: mood and modality. Eggins (2004, p.
147) writes that Mood structure consists of mood element and residue and Modality
is a complex area of an English grammar which investigates how to convey the
message of the text, and residue is the element left over of the function the clause. It
can be concluded that mood of a clause can be identified from its grammatical
structure statement is realized by declarative mood, question is realized by
interrogative mood, command is realized by imperative mood.
b. Textual Metafunction
Halliday (1985) as cited in (Arinsurot, 2013, p. 161) state in the textual
function of the clause is that of constructing a message’ and the theme/rheme
structure is the ‘basic form of the organization of the clause as message.
Furthermore, Halliday and Matthiessen (2004, p.79) assert the textual metafunction
helps organise the message within and between clauses, and is closely linked to
theories of cohesion.
Moreover, Eggins (2004, p. 320) writes that textual metafunction is in a sense
parasitic upon both the ideational and the interpersonal strands of meanings. Besides,
Halliday and Matthiesen (2004, p. 288) combines ideational (experiential) and
interpersonal metafunction in commonsense relationship to guarantee semantic
integrity in textual metafunction. Generally, there are three components of textual
metafunction as follows: The system of theme (thematic structure), the system of
information (information structure), and the system of cohesion.
c. Experiential Metafunction
Teich (1999, p. 15) states that “The experiential refers to prepositional
content encoded as processes, events, the participants therein and the accompanying
circumstances, the types of objects referred to and their qualities. The logical refers
to some general organizing relations expressed, for instance, by dependencies
between elements in structure (e.g. hypotactic versus paratactic organization)”.
Moreover, Bloor and Bloor (2004, p. 10) state that experiential relates to the
perceptions or ideas about the world, yet the logical represents the relationships
between the perceptions or ideas.
Also called Clause as Representation, the clause represents the ‘content’ of
our experiences, answering the question ‘Who does what to whom’. This
metafunction uses the grammatical system of transitivity. Although sharing the
traditional view of transitivity that the focus is on the verb group (process),
Thompson (2004, p.7) states that SFG refers to the system as describing the whole
of clause. It can be concluded that through systemic functional grammar, it
describing the ideology and power of language.
2. Procedure Text
Procedure text is a kind of text that telling people to do or to make something
through some stages need to be accomplished. To build a procedure text,
Derewianka (1990) lists the organization of the procedure text as follows:
a. Goal (what to achieve, mostly written as the tittle of the text)
b. Materials (things needed to achieve the goal that will be used from the
beginning until the end of the text)
c. Methods (series of steps the readers or listeners need to do to achieve the goal)
Derewianka (1990) also mentions that a good procedure text, there should be
covered some linguistic features.
a. Connectors marking the time or sequence like first, second, then, after that,
finally and many others
b. Action verbs to draw a vivid description for readers or listeners so they do
exactly like what is supposed to be done
c. Using imperative sentences
d. Involves the information of how, when and where in the steps or methods to
give detail description to do the steps
C. Data Analysis
In the process of analysing interpersonal meaning, the writer analysed the texts
by existence of mood and modality types, mood types were divided into three
categories; declarative mood, question is realized by interrogative mood, command
is realized by imperative mood. And modality were categorized as value of modality,
and polarity system which is contained in the sentence. The values were categorized
in high, medium, and low. Then the polarity of the text will be positive and negative.
It means the value of modality type and polarity analysis can be described the author
meaning and how strong the statements or statements the author in the text.
This written assignment is an analysis of genre. The type of text analyzed is
procedure text which covers the topic about one method for improving basketball
shooting skills. The text is considered the best because it coherently and accurately
presents the information in relation to the topic proposed. The essay is well
organized and occasional language errors that are presented do not result in
inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connection. Moreover, this topic
which is about one method for improving basketball shooting skills is chosen
because it is considered appropriate to be taught to junior high school students. It
represents the skills that should be acquired by the basketball player to do the better
This assignment will analyze the organization of the text; how each stage is
arranged together to achieve the purpose of the text and also reaches the social
function of this analytical exposition text. Besides, the register (field, tenor, and
mode) of the text will also be analyzed. It will be seen from the language features
the writer puts forward in the text. The analysis will be put in comment section.
Reference : scpergell
A. Literature Review : derewianka
Genre/register : aspek to be consider in Eggins.
The content of situation USING SFL :
Procedure text : goal, materials, methods
B. Methodology : qualitative descriptive text
C. Findings and discussion
The result from genre analysis of expert text displays below on the table.
However, agood procedural text should comprise the goal, material (and
tools), steps. ...
The example of procedure text THE ANALYSIS OF GENREOF THE
Goal The text tells the goal..
The materials arementioned as can be
seenon the left column. It is stated that
it needs : a basketball, hoop,..
This expert text involves these things
below as its language features : the text
mostly presents sentences in
imperatives form without the explicit
subject mention. The subject refers to
Analysis the Context of Situation
a. Investigating field
b. Investigating tenor
c. Investigating mode
The analysis of context of situation through interpersonal, experiental, and textual
The organization of a procedure text
The parts of the procedure : the goal, equipment, steps.
Language features of a procedure text : connectors, action verbs, using imperatives
The Interpersonal, Experiential, And Textual Metafunction Analysis Of The
The following is one method for improving basketball shooting skills.
One method for improving
Subject Finite Predicator Complement Adjunct
You will need a basketball, hoop, with backboard and chalk.
You Will Need a basketball,
Subject Finite Predicator Complement
Senser Process: mental, desideration Phenomenon
1. Measure three metres from the pole and draw a line with the chalk.
Measure Three metres From the
And Draw A line With the
Complement Adjunct Conjuncti
2. Stand at this line.
Stand at this line
Process: material Circumstance
3. Place the left hand under the basketball and put the right hand on top.
Place the left
And Put the right
Interpersonal Rheme Interpersonal Rheme
4. Roll the ball between the hands so that it balances on the fingers of the right
Roll the balll Between
it balances on the fingers
of the right
Predicator Complement Adjunct subject Finite Predicator Adjunct
Residue Mood Residue
Interpersonal Rheme Experiential Rheme
5. Look at the centre of the square on the backboard.
Look at the center of the square on the backboard
Predicator Complement Circumstantial Adjunct
6. Flick the basketball off the fingers in the direction of the centre of the
Flick the basketballl Off the fingers in the direction of the centre of the
Predicator Complement Adjunct
7. Repeat the process until the ball goes into the basket ten out of ten times
Repeat the process until the ball goes into the
Predicator Complement Adjunct subject Finite predicator Adjunct
Residue Mood Residue
Goal Circumstance Actor Process: Material Circumst
interpersonal Rheme Experiential Rheme
The analysis of interpersonal meaning, scprl p.194
Field of discourse Commentary
Tenor of discourse Commentary
Agentive or societal
The only speaker is
Almost all the
clauses in this text
are in imperative –
demands action and
Textual meanings Mode of discourse Commentary
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