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THE ADRENAL GLAND. The Adrenal Gland The adrenal medulla catecholamine The adrenal cortex corticoids.

Jan 02, 2016



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  • The Adrenal Gland

  • The Adrenal GlandThe adrenal medulla catecholamine The adrenal cortex corticoids

  • Anatomy of Adrenal Cortexzona glomerulosasecretes aldosterone zona fasciculatasecretes glucocorticoids zona reticularissecretes androgens

  • Adrenocortical hormone

  • Renal and Circulatory effects of AldosteroneAldosterone Increases Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Na+ and Secretion of K+ Excess Aldosterone ECF ABP Small effect on plasma Na+ Concentration

  • Renal and Circulatory effects of aldosteroneK+ concentrationAldosterone Hypokalemia and Muscle Weak-nessAldosterone Hyperkalemia and Cardiac ToxicityMild Alkalosis: Aldosterone adrenal glands suddenly stop secreting aldosteronesalt are lost in the urineECF blood volume circulatory shock causes death within a few days (without treatment)

  • Glucocorticoids Function

    :inhibit NADH oxidation which is necessary for glycolysis :FFA

  • GlucocorticoidsFunctionPoor wound healingnot most other cells

  • GlucocorticoidsFunction: same with mobilization of amino acid from muscle glucose uptake in adipose cell

  • GlucocorticoidsFunctionCushings syndrome

  • Cushings syndromeBuffalo-like torso Rounded face, moon-face.

  • GlucocorticoidsFunction Resisting stressTrauma , infection, intense heat or cold, surgery

  • Resisting stressBrain Anterior pituitary (ACTH)Sympathetic nervous systemAdrenal cortexAdrenal medullaGlucocorticoidsNE,E

  • GlucocorticoidsFunction

  • GlucocorticoidsFunction

  • Summary of glucocoticoid action

    GsHepatic gluconeogenesisInsulin actionBG GlucocoticoidAdrenal diabetesPro-teinCatabolism (especially in muscle)anabolism Amino acid in blood plasmadifficult of wound healingFat Fat mobilization Fat redistributionacetone body Glucocoticoidcentral obesityCushings syndrome H2O and Na+Similar with aldosteroneADH GFR (1/400 of aldosterone)GlucocoticoidWater Intoxication

  • Blood cellhematopoiesislymphopoiesislung and spleen eosinophil storageRBCTBClymphocyteneutrophileosinophil Leuke-miaGastric shieldgastric acid and peptic enzyme gastric mucosafall off of gastric epithelia cell ulcer Circulat-ionpermisivienesssglucocoticoidBPCNSexcitabilitylesseuphoria morerestlessness, insomnia

  • Regulation of Secretion of Adrenocortical HormoneHypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis

  • Regulation of Secretion of Adrenocortical HormoneAction of CRHSynthesis and release of ACTH Action of ACTH (adrenocorticotropin hormone )control Cortisol secretionhypertrophy and proliferation of the adrenocorticol cells

  • Large amount administration of exogenous glucocoticoid , prohibit to stop using it suddently?

  • Regulation of Secretion of Adrenocortical HormoneRegulation of cortisol SecretionNegative feedback effect of cortisol

  • Diseases of Adrenal GlandsCushings DiseaseHyper-active adrenal cortexrounded face & obesityThin, frail skin poor wound healingAddisons DiseaseHypo-active adrenal cortexDecreased appetite, weight lossCold intoleranceStress susceptibility

  • The adrenal medulla

  • The adrenal medulla

  • The adrenal medulla

  • The adrenal medulla

  • Insulin Insulin Small protein 51 AAReceptorTyrosine kinase

  • Insulin

  • Insulinacetoaceticacid is also converted into b-hydroxybutyric acid andacetone.ketone bodies: Acetoacetic, b-hydroxybutyric acid ,acetone

  • Insulin

  • Insulin

  • Glucagon

  • Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)Polypeptide

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)Funtion : increase the calcium concentrationBone Stimulate osteoclast to remove Ca 2+ from the bone matrix Kidney: Increased Ca2+ reabsorption, PO42- excretionSmall intestineIncreased Ca2+ reabsorption

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

  • CalcitoninProduced by the C cells of the thyroid gland.Function plasma Ca 2+ and PO42-RegulationConcentration of Ca 2+ increased ,The calcitonin increased.

  • Vitamin D3Function intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption.renal calcium and phosphate excretion.Coordinate with PTH increase Ca 2+ .

  • Summary

  • Summary

    Zona glomerulos zona fasciculata zona reticularis*Androgen glucocorticoid*gluconeogenesis*torso*Striae bruisability with ecchymose**leukemia***cortisol*