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FINAL SUMMARY
High grade strength plate steels were used to improve their applications in EU obtain advantages to the
overall stiffness of the decks as well as their fatigue resistance. The yield strengths of the steels were in
the range 4601100 MPa.
The application of these products were focalised to design and to produce conventional and sandwich
panels in ship as well as for bridge application.
In order to met the objectives the project were articulated in the follow tasks:
- To define the procedures to design, by geometrical parametric inputs, conventional and sandwichdecks.
- To investigate the fatigue behaviour of the shape of welding joints, by specimens, and to comparethe results to Eurocode 3.
- To identify the methods for manufacturing heavy sandwich panels and the related weldingprocedure for laser joints.
- To manufacture conventional panels directly in shipyards in order to obtain industrial products asreference.
- To manufacture sandwich panel by laser welded joints. Two grades of steel plates (460 and 1100MPa) were selected.
- To test the conventional and sandwich panels in order to compare with EC3 and to verify theimprovement of their reduction of weight, the increasing both of the stiffness and the fatigue
behaviour
Materials
In order to manufacture conventional and sandwich decks the selection of plates were done in term
both of thickness and of grade.
The plates was delivered by Fincantier (Italian shipyards) and produced by ThyssenKrupp Nirosta
GmbH (Germany) and from Corus (UK)
Steel Grade YS
[MPa]
Thickness [mm] Supplier
355 8
560 16
690 8
690 12690 16
690 30
1100 8
355 2
FINCANTIERI
(TKS)
355 8
460 8
690 8
355 2
CORUS
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Design
Conventional decks, with upper skin of th=16mm, and grades S560 and S690 MPa were designed by
FEA. The parameters used to optimise the weight and the stiffness was: bulb area (web thickness and
height) and web numbers. The minimum deflection obtained applying a medium load was: thickness
= 10mm, height=275mm, number of web number N=3. A number of 11 conventional decks (in
particular 5 were in grade S560 and 6 in grade 690 and reinforced bulb in grade S355) were
manufactured ready to submit under fatigue tests. The dimension of each the conventional panel was:
length L= 3000mm, width W=1500 mm, height H= 275mm, weight P=800kgm.
Sandwich decks were designed by 2D. After the valuation of the results the design was improved by a
3D FEM.
The objective of the model was to minimize the buckling of the
corrugate elements as well as the deflection of the panel. The
parameters used to obtain the expected results were: the shape and
the size of the corrugate element in term of: thickness, web/plate
angle, wave length and height.
Optimised dimensions of the sandwich decks were obtained also
taking into account the manufacturing problems to weld, by laser
plant, the internal corrugate elements to upper and lower skin
plates.
The dimensions of the corrugate internal parts are reported in the sketch on the right, where the
thickness of the sheet S355was th=2mm and the upper plates (S1100) and lower plates (S355) was
th=8mm.
Welded Joints
All the shapes (figures) of the welded joints useful to manufacture conventional and sandwich decks
were manufactured in order to investigate their fatigue resistance and compared with the requirements
of Eurocode 3.
For conventional decks MAG, SAW and SMAW welding procedure were considered as well as butt
and T-Butt joint. Welded joint plates of dimension 1000x1000mm were manufactured directly in
shipyard in order to test true industrial production.
Specimens of with W100mm and length L500mm were machined from welded plates and submitted
under fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were carried out in constant and variable amplitude in order to obtain
both the Whler and Ganer curves.
Moreover the notch effect of the welded line was evaluated as well as the real damage. All test data
clearly are on the safe side. Compared to the experimental data derived from the tests, Eurocode3
seams to be conservative.
For sandwich decks laser welding procedure was defined and two shape of spare welded joints
specimens were investigate as follows::
Laser welded joints were cut from welded plates manufactured in four series with different grade of
upper and lower plates:
TypeA:RD1100/RD355 (Series 2)
TypeA:RD355/RD355 (Series 3) TypeB:RD355/RD355 (Series 4) TypeB:RD1100/RD355 (Series 1)
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First Material specification describes thick plate material plate material (th=8mm), second material
description describes corrugate thin sheet material (th=2mm). Type B specimens are specimens
welded from the thick plate side to the thin sheet. For Type A specimens the thin sheet is welded to
the plate from the thin sheet side.
These specimens were submitted under axial loading with constant and variable amplitude in order to
derive Whler and Ganer curves as well as the real damage.
The results lead to define appropriate FAT classes for laser welded specimens Type A and Type B,
as these details are not listed in Eurocode tables.
Possible classification for Type A was:
FAT 36 : Transverse butt weld, welded from one side without backing, full penetration (t region, thus crack initiation sites are decided by the localnotch factor value only. This behavior presumes a very severe residual stress state in the weld zone.
The unusual failure behaviour at higher load levels could have different explanations, the easiest onebeing related to the uncertainties in notch factor evaluation: specimens E13, E15, E17and E21 could
without difficulty have different geometrical features with respect to the others (it has to be
remembered that only two E specimens have been measured, and both have not been tested).
The distortion of E series specimens could also play a role. As pointed out above, the E series
specimens are quite distorted around the weld axis (up to 5) due to the welding procedure; since the
stress flux lines inside the specimen tend to follow the shortest path, evidently weld notches on one
side are less stressed (so on the other side theyre more stressed) with respect to the no distortion
condition.
The influence of the curvature on the notch factors has been investigated through a plane FEM model
reproducing the butt weld cross section; r/20 has been adopted as minimum element size in the highly
stressed regions. The actual test configuration of the E specimens and a curvature equal to 5 have been
taken into account: in this conditions the top-right and the bottom right notch factors are respectively
+5% higher and -10% lower then the ideal situation, thus such notch factors are closer if the actual
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shape of the specimens is considered. Figure 93 shows the FEM results for two equal notches in terms
equivalent stresses of acc.to von Mises (in plane stress conditions such a stress is equal to the first
principal stress in the tensile area, and to the third principal stress in the compressive area): the top and
bottom highly stressed areas evidently experience different stress levels (the reference value of the
notch factor is 3.20).
Since the weld geometry is measured in the actual condition, the distortion is already taken into
account, thus the curvature effect can be perhaps better considered as a fictitious increment and/ordecrement of the nominal stress.
In Figure 94 the SN curves are shown in terms of local stress amplitude, that is obtained multiplying
the nominal stress amplitude for the stress concentration factor related to the initiation notch. The three
original SN curves in terms of nominal stresses can be evidently transformed to one common curve (the
local fatigue strength ranges between 278 MPa and 287 MPa for R=0). In the knee point area the
scatter is high, mainly due to the SMAW series, which is scattered in itself.
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Figure
84-Notchradiusstatisticaldistr
ibutionfor
MAGSeries.
Figure85-Notchanglestatisticaldistributionfo
r
MAGSeries.
Figure86-Notchradiusstatisticaldistributionfor
SAWSe
ries.
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Figure8
7-Notchanglestatisticaldistribu
tionforSAW
Series.
Figure88-Notchradiusstatisticaldistributionf
or
SMAWSeries.
Figure89-Notchanglest
atisticaldistributionfor
SMAWSeries.
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Figure90-Notchfactorstatisticaldistributionfor
MAGSeries.
Figure91-Notchfactorstatisticaldistributionfor
SAWSeries.
Figure92-Notchfactorst
atisticaldistributionfor
SMAWSeries.
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Figure 93 - Local equivalent stress acc. to Von Mises calculated by FEM.
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10
4
2
4
6
810
5
2
4
6
810
6
2
4
6
810
7
2
100
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1000
MAG:
Gasmetalarcwelding
SAW
:
Submergedarcwelding
SMAW
:Shieldedmetalarcwelding
287
_
_
P
=50%
T=
1:1.35
Specim
en
TypeC
Fig16_Fat_test_local_280186.
OPJ
Fatigue
Strength
of
Buttw
elds
Fig.8
LBF280186
MPa
k=
3.5
Localstressamplitudea,n,a,n
CyclestoruptureNr,Nr
Material:
S690QL
Geometry:
Buttweld
Thickness:
30mm
Load:
Bending
Ratio:
R
=0
Constantamplitude
CA
.MA
G
MAG
CA
.SAW
SAW
CA
.SMAW
SMAW
Figure94-Fatiguestrengthofbu
ttweldsintermsoflocalstressamplitude.
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respectively the actual endurance and the endurance expected Test results and Eurocode3: comparison
The real damage sum has been calculated for butt welds subjected to variable amplitude loading tests.
Such calculation has been performed according to the procedure illustrated in Figure 95. Partial
damages are evaluated starting from the relevant Whler curve, and summed up to cover the actual
operating life of the specimen.
Values of Dreal are reported in Table 29: The fact that the real damage is significantly higher then 1
has strongly to be noted.
Such a result is expressed differently in Figure 96 where the Ganer curves (Pf=50%) are calculated in
order to obtain D=1; for damage calculations Whler curves slope after the knee point is assessed by
Haibachs recommendation for welded steel:
1k2k =' (14)Evidently the specimens endure longer then expected making reference to a damage sum equal to one,
even if E series is quite close to the relevant Ganer curve.
In Figure 97 test results and curves suggested by Eurocode3 (latest version available: April 1992) are
shown and compared.
Eurocode3 design curves are ideally divided into three segments according to fatigue life ranges: for
normally loaded welds, up to 5 million cycles the slope is k=3, between 5 million cycles and 100
million cycles the slope becomes k=5, after 100 million cycles the inclination becomes null (cut offlimit). Every curve is so completely determined if the FAT Class is known: the FAT Class corresponds
to the nominal stress range at 2 million cycles, and its value in MPa depends on the weld geometry and
loading. Design curves refer to 2,3% of probability of rupture, i.e. 2 standard deviations less then the
mean value; it has also to be noted that Eurocode3 expresses Whler curve in terms of nominal stress
range , and not nominal stress amplitude.
Butt welds pertain to the FAT90 Class, so fatigue strength in terms of nominal stress amplitude at 2
million cycles is 45 MPa. In Figure 97 fatigue strength of Eurocode3 design curve is not exactly 45
MPa, but 43 MPa, since Eurocode3 suggests the following multiplying factor in order to take into
account the thickness effect:
25025
,
tRjR.tj
=
(15)
Whler curves obtained by tests refer to 2.3% probability of rupture in order to perform the
comparison. Clearly the SN curve suggested by Eurocode3 is well suitable to be used for safe design of
butt welds in consideration.
Figure 97 shows the Ganer curves for the three specimens series and for Eurocode3 as well: each one
is evaluated for D=1, and refers to 2.3% of probability of rupture. Derived slopes are k=3.6 and k=3
respectively.
The results illustrates above are condensed in Figure 98, 99 and 100: for each diagram the abscissa and
the ordinate arefor a damage sum equal to 1.
If D=1 is the underlying design condition, Eurocode3 provides very conservative results.
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Modificationo
ftheS-N-Curveand
CalculationofFatig
ueLife
(schematical)
DIA4784e
i=1:steel,
aluminium
i=2:cast
andsintered
materials
exper.
s
.
spec
real
real
.
spec
s
calc.
N
LD
D
D
DL
N
=
=
.
calc
N
k'=2k-i
Cumulativefre
quency
distribution(sp
ectrum)
Woehlercurve
Gassnercurve
slope k
Dam
agesumofthespectrum:
n1
n2
n3
n4
Ls
N k
.
Spec
n1
i
ii
D
Nn
=
=
1
2
3
4
N1
N2
N3
N4
max
,a
Stressamplitudea,a
k(kneepoint)
Cy
clesN,N
k'=k
Figure95-Procedureforassessingtherealdamagesum
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Nominal
stress
amplitude
(ideal)
Cycles to
rupture
Real
Damage
Sum
Spec.No.
SheetNo.
Test
#)
Stressratio
[MPa] Nr, r
F4 F1-F9 VA 0 360 947500 3,33
F7 F1-F9 VA 0 360 808000 2,84
F3 F1-F9 VA 0 300 1704000 3,14
F6 F1-F9 VA 0 300 1283000 2,36
F2 F1-F9 VA 0 250 4617200 4,42
F5 F1-F9 VA 0 250 2746000 2,63
AS5 AS1-AS12 VA 0 520 633054 4,47
AS7 AS1-AS12 VA 0 520 274539 1,94
AS2 AS1-AS12 VA 0 430 1255000 4,54
AS8 AS1-AS12 VA 0 430 734653 2,66
AS4 AS1-AS12 VA 0 360 5330075 10,29
AS6 AS1-AS12 VA 0 360 1587005 3,06
E5 E1-E9 VA 0 360 1061000 1,41
E1 E1-E9 VA 0 360 1093000 1,45
E6 E1-E9 VA 0 300 1700000 1,16
E3 E1-E9 VA 0 300 2505000 1,71E4 E1-E9 VA 0 250 3212000 1,09
E7 E1-E9 VA 0 250 3232000 1,10
Table 29 - Real damage sums for butt welds.
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10
4
2
4
6
810
5
2
4
6
810
6
2
4
6
810
7
2
60
80
100
100
200
300
400
500
600
k=3.7
k=6
k=3.8
k=3.7
100 9
0
_
_
P
=50%
T=1:1.35
SpecimenTypeC
Fig18
_D
_calc
_butt
_280186.
OPJ
runo
ut(withoutfailure)
retes
tedatahigherlevel(broken)
GassnerCurves(D
=1)andVariableAmplitudeLoadingTe
stResults:compar
ison
Fig.xxx
LBF
280186
76
MPa
k=3.5
Nominalstressamplitudea,n,a,n
Cyclestorupture
N r,N r
Material:
S690QL
Geometry:
Buttweld
Thickness:
30mm
Load:
Bending
Ratio:
R=0
TestResults(ConstantAmplitude
)
CA.MAG
CA.SAW
CA.SMAW
TestResults(Gauss,L
s,G
=5104 )
VA.MAG
VA.SAW
VA.SMAW
WhlerandGassner(D=1)Curve
s
MAG
SAW
SMAW
Figure96-GanercurvescalculatedforD=1.
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10
4
2
4
6
810
5
2
4
6
810
6
2
4
6
810
7
2
2020
40
60
80
100
100
200
300
400
500
600
k=3,6
k=
6
k=3,5
k=3
436
0
k
=5
Material:
S690QL
Geometry:
Buttweld
Thickness:
30mm
Load:
Bending
Ratio:
R=0
ConstantAmplitudeand
VariableAmplitude(Gauss,Ls
,G
=510
4)
LoadingTests:Results
CA.MAG
V
A.MAG
CA.SAW
V
A.SAW
CA.SMAW
V
A.SMAW
WhlerandGaner(D=1)Cur
ves
MAG
SAW
SMAW
Eurocode3
79
71
_
_
P
=2
,3%
T=1:1.35
SpecimenTypeC
Fig19_D_calc_butt_280186.OPJ
runo
ut(withoutfailure)
retes
tedatahigherlevel(broken)
Eurocode3(D=1)andVariableAmplitudeLoadingTestResu
lts:comparison
Fig.xx
LBF280186
32
MPa
k=
3
Nominalstressamplitudea,n,a,n
CyclestoruptureNr
,Nr
Figure97-GanercurvescalculatedforD=1.
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4
105
10
6
10
7
10
4
10
5
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Dreal1
D=
1,Pf=
50%
MAG
CyclesexpectedforD=1
10
4
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5
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10
7
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Dreal1
D=
1,Pf=
50%
SAW
Cyclestorupture
10
4
10
5
106
10
7
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
D=
1,Pf=
50% D
real>1
Dreal1
Dreal1
D=
1,Pf=
2,3%
SAW
Cyc
lestorupture
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Dreal1
Dreal1
Dreal1
D=
1,Pf=
2,3%
SAW
C
yclestorupture
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Dreal1
Dreal