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Team Dynamics Report

Jun 03, 2018

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    2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rimby McShane and Travaglione

    C H A P T E R 8

    Team

    Dynamics

    By: Analyn A. Arienda

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    What are teams?

    Groups of two or morepeople who interact andinfluence each other aremutually accountable for

    achieving commonobjectives and perceivethemselves as a socialentity within an

    organisation

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    Types of teams

    Permanent teams team-based departments team-based organisation quality circles

    Temporary teams task forces

    temporary teams that investigate a problem

    skunkworks

    formed spontaneously, using borrowed resources, todevelop products or solve problems

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    Groups versus teams

    All teams are groups

    Some groups are justpeople assembledtogether

    Teams have taskinterdependencewhereas some groups

    do not (eg group ofemployees enjoyinglunch together)

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    Advantages of Teams

    Make better decisions

    Make better products and services due to more

    knowledge and expertise

    Increase employee engagement

    Compared with individuals workingalone, teams tend to:

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    The trouble with teams

    Individuals better/faster on some tasks

    Process losses cost of developing and maintainingteams

    Brooks Law - more delays when adding members to ateam already behind schedule

    Companies dont support best work environment forteam dynamics

    Social loafing - occurs when individuals exert lesseffort when working in groups than alone

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    Team design elements

    Task characteristics

    better when tasks are clear, easy to implement task interdependence

    share common inputs, processes or outcomes

    Team size

    smaller teams are better

    but large enough to accomplish task

    Team composition

    members motivated/competent to perform task in a team environment

    team diversity

    Effective team members are good at the 5 Cs:

    Cooperating

    Coordinating

    Communicating

    Comforting (psych support)

    Conflict resolving

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    Levels of Task Interdependence

    Sequential

    Pooled

    Reciprocal

    Resource

    A B C

    A B C

    A

    B C

    High

    Low

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    Homogeneous vs heterogeneous teams

    Higher satisfaction

    Less conflict

    Faster team development

    More efficient coordination

    Performs better on simpletasks

    More conflict

    Slower team development takes longer to agree on

    norms and goals

    Better knowledge andresources for complex tasks

    Tend to be more creative

    Higher potential for supportoutside the team

    Homogeneous teams Heterogeneous teams

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    Team norms

    Informal rules and expectations a team establishesto regulate member behaviours

    Norms develop through

    explicit statements

    critical events in teams history initial team experiences

    beliefs/values members bring to the team

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    Changing team norms

    Introduce norms when forming teams

    Select members with preferred norms

    Discuss counterproductive norms

    Reward behaviours representing desired norms

    Disband teams with dysfunctional norms

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    Team Cohesion

    The degree of attraction people feel toward the teamand their motivation to remain members

    Calculative -- members believe the team will fulfillgoals and needs

    Emotional -- team is part of persons social identity

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    How to Minimize Social Loafing

    Make individual performance more visible

    Form smaller teams

    Specialize tasks

    Measure individual performance

    Increase employee motivation

    Increase job enrichment

    Select motivated employees

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    Conditions for social loafing

    Low task interdependence

    Individual output not visible

    Routine, uninteresting tasks

    Low task significance

    Low collectivist values

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    Virtual Teams

    Teams whose members operate across space, time, andorganizational boundaries and are linked throughinformation technologies to achieve organizational tasks

    Increasingly possible because of:

    Information technologies Knowledge-based work

    Increasingly necessary because of:

    Knowledge management

    Globalization

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    Virtual Team Success Factors

    Member characteristics

    Technology savvy

    Self-leadership skills

    Emotional intelligence

    Flexible use of communication technologies

    Opportunities to meet face-to-face

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    Team Decision Making Constraints

    Time constraints

    Time to organize/coordinate

    Production blocking

    Evaluation apprehension

    Belief that other team members are silently evaluating you

    Conformity to peer pressure Suppressing opinions that oppose team norms

    Groupthink

    Tendency in highly cohesive teams to value consensus at theprice of decision quality

    Concept is losing favor -- need to consider specific featuresinstead (e.g. overconfidence)

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    General Guidelines for Team

    Decisions

    Team norms should encourage critical thinking

    Sufficient team diversity

    Ensure neither leader nor any member dominates

    Maintain optimal team size

    Introduce effective team structures

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    Constructive Conflict

    Occurs when team members debate their different

    perceptions about an issue in a way that keeps the conflict

    focused on the task rather than people.

    Problem: constructive conflict easily slides into personal

    attacks

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    2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rimby McShane and Travaglione 20

    Rules of Brainstorming

    1. Speak freely

    2. Dont criticize

    3. Provide as many ideas as possible

    4. Build on others ideas

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    Evaluating Brainstorming

    Strengths

    Produces more innovative ideas

    Strengthens decision acceptance and team cohesiveness

    Sharing positive emotions encourages creativity

    Higher customer satisfaction if clients participate

    Weaknesses

    Production blocking still exists

    Evaluation apprehension exists in many groups

    Fewer ideas generated than when people work alone

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    Electronic Brainstorming

    Participants share ideas using software

    Usually in the same room, but may be dispersed

    Question posted, then participants submit their ideas

    or comments on computer Comments/ideas appear anonymously on computer

    screens or at front of room

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    Evaluating Electronic Brainstorming

    Strengths

    Less production blocking

    Less evaluation apprehension

    More creative synergy

    More satisfaction with process

    Weaknesses

    Too structured

    Technology-bound Candid feedback is threatening

    Not applicable to all decisions

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    Thank you!!!

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