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Tanumihardjo nutrition vit a

May 07, 2015

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  • 1.Taking Stock of the Evidence on Biofortification of Food Crops with Provitamin A Carotenoids: Situation Analysis of What We Know Sherry A. Tanumihardjo Associate Professor University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Department of Nutritional Sciences

2. Parker, FASEB J 10:543, 1996 3. Definitions Bioaccessibility: how much carotenoid is released from the food matrix and available for absorption. Bioavailability: fraction of ingested nutrient available for utilization or storage. Bioconversion: proportion of bioavailable carotene converted to retinol. Bioefficacy: efficiency ingested carotenoids are absorbed and converted to retinol. 4. Intestinal wall b-Cabsorbed Cleaved Retinal Reduced Retinol Food b-Ctotal b-Cfreed Bioaccessibility = b-Cfreed / b-Ctotal Bioavailability = b-Cabsorbed / b-Ctotal Bioconversion = Retinol / b-Cabsorbed Bioefficacy = Retinol / b-Ctotal Tanumihardjo, IJVNR 72: 41, 2002 5. SLAMENGHI - 1996 Species of carotenoids molecular Linkage Amount of carotenoids consumed in a meal Matrix in which the carotenoid is incorporated Effectors of absorption and bioconversion Nutrient status of the host Genetic factors Host-related factors mathematical Interactions 6. Advantages of Biofortification: Enhancing micronutrients in crops Targets the poor: eat high levels of food staples Rural-based: complements fortification and supplementation Cost-effective: research at a central location can be multiplied across countries and time Sustainable: investments are front-loaded, low recurrent costs 7. The Sherry Factors!!! S Species of carotenoid H Host related factors E Effectors of absorption R Relative amounts of carotenoids R Resistant starch Y Yet to be determined 8. S Species of carotenoid Hydrocarbon or not 9. S Species of carotenoid OH OH -carotene b-carotene b-cryptoxanthin retinol 10. -Carotene equivalents 5.5 mg:1 mg Treatment group n Serum retinol (mmol/L) Liver retinyl palmitate (mmol/g) Liver total retinol2 (mmol/g) Baseline3 6 1.30 + 0.35 0.123 + 0.024b 0.170 + 0.027b Vitamin A 9 1.44 + 0.21 0.198 + 0.051a 0.267 + 0.071a -Carotene 9 1.39 + 0.09 0.110 + 0.026b 0.155 + 0.033b b-Carotene 9 1.40 + 0.17 0.109 + 0.051b 0.153 + 0.066b Oil control 5 1.57 + 0.38 0.061 + 0.029c 0.091 + 0.041c Tanumihardjo & Howe. J. Nutr. 135: 26226, 2005 11. Bioconversion for b-cryptoxanthin was 2.8 mg to 1 mg retinol and almost identical to b- carotene. a ab bc c ab 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Base Ctl bC bCX VA molRE/gliver ab c bc a a 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Base Ctl bC bCX VA molRE/liver Davis et al., BJN, 2008 12. Biofortified b-cryptoxanthin maize 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 mmolRE/liver Base Control bC Maize VA bc bc c b a Davis et al., BJN, 2008 13. Bioefficacy of biofortified b-carotene maize High-b-carotene maize did not differ from b-carotene . Bioconversion: ~3 mg b-carotene to 1 mg retinol. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Control Maize BC VA Treatment LiverVA(mmol) a bb c 14. What about bioconversion factors in human studies? Li et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2010 6.48 3.51 mg bC:1 mg retinol in 6 young women in Iowa Muzhingi et al. FASEB J. 2009 3.0 1.5 mg bC:1 mg retinol in 9 healthy Zimbabwean men 15. S Species of carotenoid Cis or trans 16. Cassava: Comparable to b-carotene supplement even with substantial cis-b-carotene a bb c bc 0 02 04 06 08 1 12 14 16 18 Base Control BC Cassava VA Treatments mmolVitaminA/liver A a bcb c bc 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Base Control BC Cassava VA Treatments mmolVitaminA/gliver B c c c a b b b a a b 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Base Control BC Cassava VA Treatments nmolb-Carotene/liver trans cis C 17. Erdmans group All-trans b-carotene appears to be more bioavailable than 9-cis or 13-cis b-carotene in gerbils given single oral doses of each isomer Deming et al., J. Nutr. 132: 2700-8, 2002. The relative vitamin A value of 9-cis b-carotene is less and that of 13-cis b-carotene may be greater than the accepted 50% that of all trans- b-carotene in gerbils Deming et al., J. Nutr. 132: 2709-12, 2002. 18. Cis/trans b-carotene Bresnahan et al. FASEB J 2011 a c bc bc b b 19. H Host related factors 20. Polymorphisms Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human BCMO1 gene have been discovered causing observably reduced BCMO1 activity. We do not know how this will influence biofortification efforts at the population level. Lietz et al., Arch Biochem Biophys, 2010 21. R = 0.885 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Conversionfactor(mg:mg) Total vitamin A liver reserves (mmol) Vitamin A status of the host High b-carotene orange carrots Orange and purple carrots Kale, spinach, and brussels sprouts Sweet Potato Red carrots and Cassava Maize Total vitamin A liver reserves (mmol) Conversionfactor(mg:mg) 22. H Host related factors Other nutrient status 23. How are iron and vitamin A related? Hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis: formation of red blood cells Modulation in the anemia of infection Iron absorption and metabolism: iron mobilization and transport Immune modulation: Reduced morbidity and mortality of some infectious diseases 24. Vision retinol retinal Zn monooxygenase Digestion b-carotene 2 retinal Zn Protein synthesis Zn retinol binding protein retinol:RBP in blood (RBP) Synergism between vitamin A and Zn dehydrogenase 25. E Effectors of absorption Fat 26. Ribaya-Mercado et al. AJCN 2007;85:1041-9 Schoolchildren fed 4.2 mg provitamin A carotenoids in the form of vegetables for 9 weeks with 2.4, 5 or 10 g fat/meal. Low liver reserves (< 0.07 mmol/g) fell from 35% to 7% and the amount of fat did not influence the results. 27. Influence of fat on bioconversion Mills et al. J. Nutr. 139: 44-50, 2009 mgb-carotenetoretinol 28. Emerging data: Type of fat Dietary fats with increased unsaturated to saturated fat enhance absorption of carotenoids by increasing efficiency of micellarization and lipoprotein secretion Unsaturated fat enhances carotenoid bioavailability Chitchumroonchokchai et al., FASEB J. 2010; Abstract 539.3. 29. R Relative amounts of carotenoids 30. Conversion factors ranged from 9 to 11 mg b-carotene to 1 mg retinol for typical orange and 23 mg b- carotene to 1 mg retinol for biofortified carrots. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 high orange orange purple white Totalliverb-carotene(nmol) a b b c (A) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 high orange orange purple white TotallivervitaminA(mmol) a b b c (B) Dosti et al., BJN. 2006 31. Cassava: Varying the level of cassava a abab b a a 0 03 06 09 Base Control 15% #2 17% #1 35% #2 40% #1Treatments mmolVitaminA/liver A abab ab b ab a 0 01 02 03 Base Control 15% #2 17% #1 35% #2 40% #1Treatments mmolVitaminA/gliver B b b a bb a a b b cc a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Base Control 15% #2 17% #1 35% #2 40% #1 Treatments nmolb-Carotene/liver trans cis C 32. b-Carotene assessment 0 10 20 30 40 Control Maize BC VA Treatment Liverb-carotene(nmol) a b Liver bC is ~100% greater in maize treatment group 33. VA status with increasing b-carotene. Liver VA from orange maize was greater than yellow, regardless of % (P < 0.05). 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 30% typical 60% typical 30% high BC 60% high BC Maize Treatment LiverVA(mmol) ab bc c a 34. Provitamin A from cassava, maize, or supplements of vitamin A, -carotene, and -cryptoxanthin 35. Conclusions: Not all provitamin A carotenoids are equivalent, one conversion factor does not fit all foods and is related to vitamin A status. Biofortified maize not only maintained vitamin A status, but was as efficacious as b-carotene supplements. In populations consuming maize, using orange instead of white maize may impact vitamin A status. 36. A male child eating maize 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Age of child (y) LivervitaminAaccumulation mmol/g) Sugar Maize Supplements Bioconversion slows Tanumihardjo, Comp. Rev. Food Sci. & Food Safety, 2008;7:373-81. 37. Setting up kitchens 38. Grinding the maize 39. Food Details Standardized recipes with a rotating menu 40. Cooking the maize 41. Stirring and stirring. 42. Food Details Serving sizes weighed for each menu item 43. Food Details Children Eating! All uneaten food weighed for each subject 44. Cleaning up the mess And the data! 45. * * A B C D 46. R Resistant starch Sweet potato, Golden Rice and banana 47. Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato 48. Using the paired isotope dilution test, final vitamin A was higher in the spinach, vitamin A and b-carotene groups compared to the control group. Vitamin A equivalency factors were estimated: ~13:1 for sweet potato ~10:1 for Indian spinach ~6:1 for b-carotene Vitamin A provided with meals Haskell et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:705-14 49. Mills et al. J. Nutr. 139: 44-50, 2009 Influence of dry matter on bioconversion mgb-carotenetoretinol 50. South African Trial Supervised feeding; 125 g x 5 d/wk for 10.5 wk; 1030 mg RAE OFSP vs 0 mg RAE WFSP; 90% compliance; 250% RDA 51. Infants eating sweet potato Sweet potato Sachets or tablets ? 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 Age of child (mo) LivervitaminAaccumulation (mmol/g) Sweet potato Tablets or sachets Tanumihardjo, Comp. Rev. Food Sci. & Food Safety, 2008;7:373-81. 52. -0.004 0.004 -0.006 -0.005 -0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 Intervention effect: -0.008 (-0.015, -0.001) P = 0.0203 Change in liver stores of vitamin A Intervention Control 53. Sweet potato in Mozambique Effectiveness study using an integrated agricultural and nutrition intervention 2 year intervention covering 2 agricultural cycles 90% of intervention households produced sweet potato Intervention children (n = 498) ate more sweet potato and had higher serum retinol than controls (n = 243) Low et al. J Nutr. 2007;137:1320-7. 54. . Towards Sustainable Nutrition Improvement in Rural Mozambique Taste tests were conducted at every adaptive trial harvest to determine preferences of local consumers. 55. . Towards S